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the anastasio hernÁndez file
 

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Chamorrismo in Nicaraguan newspapers & other sources, 1927-1929

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The case of Anastasio Hernández & José Eulalio Torres in the Ocotal area

The case of Carmen Vílchez & Marcelino Hernández in the La Trinidad area (forthcoming)

The case of Juan Alberto Briones in the Estelí area (forthcoming)

     This is a hard file to read, in at least two ways.  On the one hand, it offers endless possibilities for interpretation and analysis.  It is an incredibly rich source, and rich sources are by definition hard to comprehend.  That's a good thing.  On the other hand, it portrays such horrific and graphic violence that one cannot but recoil in moral revulsion at what it describes.  I stumbled across this fat file on my first visit to the National Archives and had no idea what to make of it.  Trying to puzzle out what it meant, and write about what it meant, led to my award-winning article, "HORSE THIEVES TO REBELS TO DOGS" (1996).  But many puzzles remain.

     This page contains the full text of the most important documents in the Anastasio Hernández File.  It also includes additional sources on Hernández and his Chamorrista patrons and allies in the Ocotal area:  Gustavo Paguaga, Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, and Pedro Lobo in particular.  The well-documented violence perpetrated by these and other regional elites offers an unprecedented look at what political power ultimately meant in Las Segovias, and the political-cultural context out of which the Sandino rebellion emerged.  (Photograph of Anastasio Hernández, National Penitentiary, Managua, October 1928)


     Este es un archivo difícil de leer, de dos maneras por lo menos.  Por un lado, ofrece infinitas posibilidades de interpretación y análisis.  Es una fuente increíblemente rica, y fuentes ricas son, por definición, difícil a comprender.  Es buena cosa.  Por otra parte, en frente a la retrata la violencia tan horrible y gráfica, no se puede dejar de retroceder en el rechazo moral a lo que describe.  Encontré a este archivo en la primera visita a los Archivos Nacionales del EE. UU. y no tenía ningún idea de qué hacer con ello.  Tratar de descifrar lo que significaba, y escribir acerca de lo que significaba, me llevó a la galardonada artículo, "HORSE THIEVES TO REBELS TO DOGS" (1996).  Pero aún quedan muchos enigmas.

     Esta página contiene el texto completo de los documentos más importantes en el archivo de Anastasio Hernández.  También incluye fuentes adicionales sobre Hernández y sus patrones y aliados Chamorristas en la zona de el Ocotal:  Gustavo Paguaga, Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, Lobo y Pedro en particular.  La violencia perpetrada bien documentado por estas y otras elites regionales ofrece una mirada sin precedente a lo que en la última instancia significaba el poder político en Las Segovias, y el contexto político-cultural de la que surgió la rebelión de Sandino.   

PART I   •   PHOTOGRAPHS

Record Group 127, Archives II, College Park MD

The US National Archives house two, and possibly three photographs of Anastasio Hernández.  The most detailed and chilling appears at the top of this page and is reproduced below (cropped only on the sides):

A second photo was taken while a dozen prisoners were milling around in the yard of the National Penitentiary.  Hernández, a towel draped over his shoulders, peers directly into the camera, his countenance perhaps conveying a hint of mild amusement and defiance, but in the end as inscrutable as in the photo above.  He stands next to Carmen Vílchez (S-5), a fellow Chamorrista gang leader of the La Trinidad area:

 

What is probably a third photo was taken inside the penitentiary carpentry shop.  This is a fascinating photograph: 

The scene looks relatively spontaneous and unstaged, as if the prisoners were walked in on and told to pause in their work for the picture-taking.  The man sawing the board on the left (Conservative henchman Ramón Salazar, C-3) stands in mid-cut as the men on the right pause in their labors and look directly into the camera: 

In the far background stands José Eulalio Torres (C-10) next to another prisoner, wearing sunglasses and headscarf but with most of his face hidden: 

The two prisoners interlock their fingers in what appears to be a gesture of defiance and solidarity in the face of the camera.  The hidden face seems intentional, and the sunglasses indoors unusual.  Standing in the far background, his eyes shielded from the light, his person shielded from labor, his face shielded from view by all the other prisoners, he seems by his relative position, countenance, costume & gesture to be the 'top dog' among the nine.   What shows of his face definitely looks like Hernández, who was far & away the most notorious of the bunch.

PART II   •   THE ANASTASIO HERNÁNDEZ FILE

1.  PRISON DECLARATIONS OF ANASTACIO HERNÁNDEZ AND JOSÉ EULALIO TORRES

Record Group 127, Entry 192, "Correspondence Relating to Bandit Prisoners," Box 5, US National Archives

Interpretive Note:  The Hernández File contains the original stenographer's hand-written "declarations" of Hernández & Torres, and typed English translations.  Here I include scans of photocopies of the stenographer's original, and of the typed English translations.

The structure & content of these "declarations" suggest that they were constructed from a protracted interrogation of the prisoners, a series of questions and responses that were then recorded & represented as "declarations".   It seems clear, for example, that to create the declarations' opening lines, the interrogators asked:  "What is your name?"  and the prisoner responded:  "Anastasio Hernández,"  and the prisoner's statement was recorded as:  "My name is Anastasio Hernández."  "How old are you?"  "49".  The prisoner's statement recorded as:  "I am 49 years old."   And so on, for the whole of the text.  Such a rhetorical architecture begs an effort to imaginatively reconstruct the original coerced dialogue between interrogators & prisoner, which for now I leave to the reader.

PRISON DECLARATION OF ANASTACIO HERNÁNDEZ (ca. March 1928)

[p. 1]  "Yo me llamo Anastacio Hernández, tengo 49 años, nací en Mosonte, hace dos años que me fui de Mosonte, nací en 85 o 84, soy casado, fui subdirector de policía en Ocotal, hace un año me fui para Honduras, los hondureños me capturaron, porque era sandinista decían ellos, yo dije que era soldado de Chamorro y soy realmente, en este año he estado trabajando sembrando tabaco, frijoles, yo conozco a Fernando Lozano y vive en Las Manos, no sé lo que hace, yo me fui a Honduras huyendo de Sandino, a Pichingo no lo conozco pero lo he olvido mentar,

[p. 2] yo no he tenido combate con Pichingo, sino con José León Díaz, eran 400 hombres, él que ganó la batalla fue Díaz, y me mataron 25 hombres, yo no sé los muertos de ellos, y yo fui herido en el pie, donde fue el combate fue La Manzana, yo no era jefe sino soldado, yo era jefe, Torres anda conmigo desde en agosto, muchos amigos tengo en Ocotal, conozco Francisco Moncada pero no es amigo, conozco a Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, fui secretario de él en 1920,

[p. 3]  hace 4 años que estuve preso en Ocotal, me sacó Abraham Gutiérrez de la carcel, el Director de Policía que me condujo a la carcel era Baumon Rivera [Ramon Pineda?], yo lo que hacía con mís soldados era defenderme de Sandino, yo no he molestado a nadie, yo no he firmado ni una garantía, los conservadores necesitaban garantías para que mís tropas no los molestaran y yo las daba en este distrito, todos los conservadores eran soldados míos, Anastacio Zamora es correo de Sandino,

[p. 4] Anastacio Zamora llegó a mi campamento a inspeccionar como me encontraba llegó él en agosto, Torres fue primer jefe, Torres andaba a un lado, y yo al otro, la última vez que yo anduve con gente fue en agosto, el último de septiembre me fui y ya no volví, el último de octubre nos fuimos, mís soldados me los mató José León Díaz, Torres andaba con gente de El Jícaro, de Mosonte cuando fue capturado Torres no tenía ni un soldado, a Torres le quitaron su pistola, y yo no he tenido pistola nunca, las instrucciones que yo le daba a Torres era proteger a los conservadores,

[p. 5]  Anastacio Zamora vive en Los Planes, Zamora se fue para donde José León Díaz, y nosotros sabemos que Zamora era sandinista, y llevaba los mensajes, Torres sabe que Zamora es buen hombre, Zamora es sandinista porque nos atacó con ellos, Valentín González lo conozco y no lo he visto, pero es buen hombre, Valentín es carpintero, fue soldado mío el dos de febrero, las instrucciones que tenía de Gutiérrez Lobo eran que no desmallara [desmayara] nunca, Torres fue confidante mío, Inés Hernández fue el que mató a ----- [blank], Lonzano nunca anduvo conmigo, Braulio Gómez muy buen amigo mío,

[p. 6]  después de combate en Ocotal yo tenía 30 hombres, debo decir que los Paguagas y Gutiérrez son amigos míos y me conocen bien, lo mismo que Pedro Lovo, yo tenía deseos de volver a Ocotal pero por miedo no he vuelto, andan los sandinistas en la montaña y por eso ando huyendo, los bandidos que andan ahí cojieron para Santa María, Medardo Vallejos no lo conozco, pero lo he olvido mentar, a Cornelio Sandoval lo conozco, pero nunca ha andado conmigo, pero dijo que

[p. 7] tenía 7 rifles, Cornelio vive al lado de Las Manos, nosotros teníamos instrucciones de don Abram Gutiérrez Lobo que no nos dejaramos de los Liberales, y que siempre los atacaramos, conste que nunca nos comimos una res de nadie, en Dipilto ningún cafatelero forma parte de pactos, Anastacio Zamora tenía garantías de los Liberales, y la enseñaba firmada por José León Díaz, yo nunca di garantía para Zamora, Zamora es sandinista Zamora lo he visto desde en Agosto

[p. 8] declarado, Gutiérrez Abram creo que sabe que Zamora es sandinista, yo no he tenido armas en octubre, Torres es intimo amigo mío, yo provaré con Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, Pedro Lovo, y todos los Paguagas que soy buen hombre."


ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF ANASTACIO HERNÁNDEZ DECLARATION

"My name is Anastacio Hernández, I am forty-nine years old, I was born in Mosonte in 1885 or 84, I am married, I was subdirector of police in Ocotal, a year ago I went to Honduras, the Hondurans captured me, because they said I was a Sandinista, and I said I was a soldier of Chamorro, and I really am, during that year I was working, planting tobacco, beans, I know Fernando Lozano and he lives in Las Manos, I do not know what he is doing, I went to Honduras fleeing from Sandino, I do not know Pichingo but have heard mention of him, I did not have a combat with Pichingo, but with José León Díaz, there were 400 men, Díaz won the battle, and they killed 25 of my men, I do not know about their dead, I was wounded in the foot, the combat was in La Manzana, I was not a chief but a soldier, I was a chief, Torres was with me since August, I have many friends in Ocotal, I know Francisco Moncada but he is no friend, I know Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, I was his secretary in 1920, four years ago I was a prisoner in Ocotal, and Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo got me out of jail, the Director of Police who conducted me to jail was Baumon Rivera, what I did with my soldiers was to defend myself from Sandino, I have not harassed anyone, I have not signed a single guarantee, the Conservatives needed guarantees so that my troops would not harass them, and I gave guarantees in this district, all the Conservatives were my soldiers, Anastacio Zamora is Sandino's mail-courier, Anastacio Zamora arrived at my camp to inspect and see how he would find things, he arrived in August, Torres was the first chief, Torres was over here and I was over there, the last time I was with people was in August, the last of September I left and did not return, the last of October we left, José León Díaz killed my soldiers, Torres was with people from El Jícaro, from Mosonte, when Torres was captured he did not have single soldier, they took Torres's pistol, I have never had a pistol, the instructions I gave to Torres were to protect the Conservatives, Anastacio Zamora lives in Los Planes, Zamora left to go to where José León Díaz is, and we knew that Zamora was a Sandinista, and carried messages, Torres knows that Zamora is a good man, Zamora is a Sandinista because he was with them when they attacked, I know Valentín González but I have not seen him, but he is a good man, Valentín is a carpenter, he was my soldier on the second of February, the instructions that I had from Gutiérrez Lobo were to never lose heart, Torres was my confidant, Inés Hernández was the one who killed ------- [blank], Lozano was never with me, Braulio Gómez is a very good friend of mine, I should say that the Paguagas and Gutiérrez are friends of mine and know me well, the same as Pedro Lovo, I wanted to return to Ocotal but I did not because I was afraid, the Sandinistas were in the mountains and so I was fleeing, the bandits who were there took off for Santa María, I do not know Medardo Vallejos but I have heard mention of him, I know Cornelio Sandoval, but he has never been with me, but it was said that he had seven rifles, Cornelio lives over by Las Manos, we had instructions from Don Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo that we should not let the Liberals alone, that we should always attack them, I say that we never ate anyone's cow, in Dipilto no coffee growers participated in any pact, Anastacio Zamora had guarantees from the Liberals, and he showed them signed by José León Díaz, I never gave a guarantee to Zamora, Zamora is a declared Sandinista, I have seen Zamora since August, I believe Abram Gutiérrez knows that Zamora is a Sandinista, I did not have any arms in October, Torres is an intimate friend of mine, I will prove by Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, Pedro Lovo, and all the Paguagas that I am a good man."


NOTE:   The US Marines-Guardia Nacional translated the Hernandez declaration into English, as seen in the JPEG images at right.  It will be noted that this translation mixes up the sequence of the stenographer's notes and makes a number of other blunders.

 




FRAGMENT OF A SECOND DECLARATION BY ANASTACIO HERNÁNDEZ

"Mosonte: Margarito Amaya, Inés Pastrana, Presentación Salgado.  Telpaneca: Marcos Matey.  Somoto: Juan Pérez.  San Lucas: Fidencio Carazo, Encarnación Carazo, Nicomedes Ruiz, Pedro Olivas Osegueda, Secundino Caracamo, Francisco Aguilera.  Honduras: Juan Sandoval, José Esquirrión López, Cornelio Sandoval, seis rifles están en San Marcos de Colon.  Amigo de A.G.L.  En enero de 1926, A.G.L. le dijo que no molestara a los conservadores, solo a los liberales -- es amigo de Gómez -- conoce a la familia de López, conoce a Samuel Melgara, es muy amigo de Santelices.  Pedro Osorio jefe en enero - en julio, Marco Antonio Ojeda.  Jefe Politico Salvador Moncada.  Tiene finca en Los Arados, fue quemado.  En El Paraiso trabajaba por Manuel Paguaga, José Calazan, A.G.L.  Antes de que don Abraham G.L. le dijera que no molestara a los conservadores, y si a los liberales, molestaba a alguien?  'No.'  Quienes son los nombres de los individuos a quien Lobo ordenó molestar?  'A todos los que anduvieron en la revolución liberal.  Yo provebo con Braulio Gómez, A.G. Lobo, Gustavo Paguaga, Salvador Pagauga, P. and M. que soy honrado.' Anastacio Persona."


ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF FRAGMENT OF SECOND ANASTACIO HERNÁNDEZ DECLARATION

"Mosonte: Margarito Amaya, Inés Pastrana, Presentación Salgado. Telpaneca: Marcos Matey. Somoto: Juan Pérez. San Lucas: Fidencio Carazo, Encarnación Carazo, Nicomedes Ruiz, Pedro Olivas Osegueda, Secundino Caracamo, Francisco Aguilera. Honduras: Juan Sandoval, José Esquirrión López, Cornelio Sandoval, six rifles are in San Marcos de Colón. Friend of A.G.L. In January 1926, A.G.L. told him not to threaten any Conservatives, only the Liberals. Is friend of Gómez. He knows the López family, he knows Samuel Melgara, is a very good friend of Santelices. Pedro Osorio was chief in January - in July, Marco Antonio Ojeda, Jefe Politico Salvador Moncada. Has a farm in Los Arados, it was burned. He worked at Paraiso for Manuel Paguaga, José Calazán, A.G.L. Did he threaten anyone before being told by Don Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo not to threaten Conservatives, only Liberals? 'No.' What are the names of the individuals Lobo ordered to be threatened? 'All those in the revolution and the Liberals. I prove with Braulio Gómez, A.G. Lobo, Gustavo Paguaga, Salvador Pagauga, P. and M. that I am honorable.' Anastacio Persona."



PRISON DECLARATION OF JOSÉ EULALIO TORRES (ca. March 1928)

[p. 1]  Yo me llamo José Eulalio Torres, tengo 30 años, nací en El Jícaro, mi papa se llama Salvador Salamanca, siendo hijo natural, tengo 3 hermanos después de mí, mís hermanos están en Honduras, tengo 4 meses de estar en Honduras, yo me fui a Honduras porque estuve de baja en Ocotal siendo inspector de hacienda, yo trabajaba en Honduras, y compré una finca ahí Honduras, conozco a Fernando Lozano, y est en Honduras, pero no lo he visto, conozco a personas en Ocotal, entre ellos Abram Gutiérrez Lovo, Pedro Lovo, Braulio Gómez me señalo para ser juez local,

[p. 2]  yo fui señalado para juez en El Jícaro en diciembre, yo estuve en Ocotal el 15 de enero, yo estaba en Ocotal el 15 de enero, cuando fui señalado para juez local, estuve en Dipilto el 10 de enero, y estuve en Honduras hace 4 meses, y como he estado pasando del Ocotal a Honduras estuve en casa de Luis Peña, la última vez que estuve en Ocotal yo recibí nombramiento de manos de Gómez para ser juez local, fue mandado mi nombramiento de la corte y Gómez me lo dio a mí, estuve en El Jícaro varias veces, 2 veces solamente,

[p. 3]  conozco a Anastacio Zamora, cuando estuve en Dipilto estuve con cuatro mujeres, yo recuerdo de una carta que le envié a Anastacio Zamora, diciéndole que no tenía garantía, yo le dije a Anastacio Zamora en la carta que le envié que si no cumplía, no recuerdo muy bien, nosotros and bamos con un jefe hondureño, persiguiendo a los sandinistas, se llama Medardo Vallejos, yo amenzaba a Anastacio porque andaba apoyado por la fuerza de Vallejos, para dar garantía, las firmaba Vallejos, y para personas convenidas yo las firmaba,

[p. 4]  para darles garantía era para que no las molestaran fuerzas de nosotros, y el individuo que no tuvieran la garantía, yo le quitaría pisto, o algo de su propiedad, matamos en La Manzana, matamos como 50 hombres, peleamos con Pichingo y José [León Díaz?] y Zelaya, nosotros estabamos ahí peleando, de nosotros murieron un hombre, y del enemigo 15, cuando nosotros fuimos atacados por Pichingo, nosotros teníamos 25 hombres, y Pichingo 225 hombres, todos mís hombres bien armados,

[p. 5]  cuando el combate llegaron 3 aeroplanos, y Anastacio Hernández estaba ahí conmigo, y de ahí cogí yo para San Marcos de Colón Honduras, conozco a Juan B. Mendoza, y no conozco si fue muerto José León Díaz, esta en el cerro de Los Robles, El Ballemas, cerca es el Coco, yo firmé solamente una garantía, firmé para Anastacio Zamora, y como el andaba con nosotros se le di, Lovo me dijo que me fuera

[p. 6]  para Honduras, y que no siguiera molestando con Vallejos, Medardo Vallejos era jefe de la gente que andaba con la gente, jefe de los chamorristas, y Anastacio Hernández jefe chamorrista, y pertenecíamos al partido chamorrista, recibíamos órdenes de Cornelio Sandoval que vive en San Marcos de Colón, tiene hacienda en Dipilto, y conseguía armas y nos las enviaba, primer jefe Vallejos, segundo jefe Hernández, Vallejos esta en El Espino,

[p. 7]  yo no sé las instrucciones que le daba Lovo Gutiérrez a Hernández, Lovo me suplicó que no siguiera con Vallejos, en Dipilto no hay persona que tenga garantías firmadas por mí, Antonio Prado, Agustín Ferrafino, y Eulogio Pastrana son los pactados cafetaleros que tenían garantías, Vicente Paguaga, José María Paguaga, Celso Paguaga, y Jesús Paguaga estaban garantizados, para cortar su café, Agustín Flores anduvo conmigo, o con Anastacio, y Francisco Martínez anduvo conmigo,

[p. 8]  Valtenín González anduvo comigo también, nosotros quitabamos animales para comer, Bacilio Salcedo, Alejandro Rodríguez, yo les devolví sus animales, tenía 7 animales cuando fui capturado, pero eran míos, Valentín Rodríguez lo conozco pero no lo he visto en San Fabian, no he estado en ningún tiempo, supe que lo habían matado una comisión de Vallejos, cuando recibí la carta de Lovo la rompí, y en la carta me decía que no sigas molestando a nadie,

[p. 9]  los cafetaleros no recogieron su café, se ha perdido, Alfonso Rivas le corta el café a Cornelio Sandoval, y Cornelio estaba en El Paraíso con Hernández, yo siendo el segundo jefe de Hernández, no recibía ni un centavo, yo no he recibido ni una carta de Gómez, solamente el nombramiento de juez, y soy buen amigo de Gómez, soy amigo de Abraham Gutiérrez también, yo no he estado preso nunca, y me fui para Honduras, yo fui descharchado de mi puesto para ir de vaqueano de una columna

[p. 10]  de marinos, a mí me capturaron los hondureños y a mí me capturaron porque me piqué y disparé mi pistola, yo tengo cuatro meses de estar en Honduras, soy dueño de una propiedad, y no sé porque se me calumnia, conste yo nunca he molestado a nadie, Fernando Lozano es el que se robaba los animales. José E. Torres."


ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF JOSÉ EULALIO TORRES DECLARATION

 "My name is José Eulalio Torres, I am thirty years old, I was born in El Jícaro, my father's name is Salvador Salamanca, I am his natural son, I have three brothers after me, my brothers are in Honduras, I was in Honduras four months, I went to Honduras because I was discharged as tax inspector in Ocotal, I was working in Honduras, and I bought a farm there in Honduras, I know Fernando Lozano, and he is in Honduras, but I have not seen him, I know people in Ocotal, among them Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, Pedro Lobo, Braulio Gómez appointed me as local judge, I was appointed judge in El Jícaro in December, I was in Ocotal on 15 January, I was in Ocotal on 15 January, when I was appointed local judge, I was in Dipilto on 10 January, and I was in Honduras four months ago, and since I was going from Ocotal to Honduras I was in the house of Luis Peña, the last time I was in Ocotal I was named local judge by Gómez, my appointment was sent to the court and Gómez gave it to me, I was in El Jícaro various times, only twice, I know Anastacio Zamora, when I was in Dipilto I was with four women, I remember a letter I sent to Anastacio Zamora, telling him that he had no guarantee, I told Anastacio Zamora in the letter I sent that if he did not do it, I do not remember very well, we were with a Honduran chief, pursuing the Sandinistas, his name is Medardo Vallejos, I threatened Anastacio because he was backed by the forces of Vallejos, Vallejos signed the guarantees, and I signed for those in the agreement, they were given guarantees so that our forces would not molest them, and the individual who did not have a guarantee, we would take a bit of something, or some of his property, in La Manzana we killed some 50 men, we fought with Pichingo and José [León Díaz?] and Zelaya, we were there fighting, one of our men died, and fifteen of the enemy, when we were attacked by Pichingo we had 25 men, and Pichingo 225 men, all my men well armed, during the combat three airplanes arrived, and Anastacio Hernández was with me, and from there I fled for San Marcos de Colón, Honduras, I know Juan B. Mendoza, and I do not know if José León Díaz was killed, he is in Los Robles Mountain, El Ballemas, near the Coco River, I signed only one guarantee, I signed for Anastacio Zamora, and since he was with us I gave it to him, Lovo told me to go to Honduras, and that I should stop bothering the people with Vallejos, Medardo Vallejos was the chief of the people who were with the people, chief of the Chamorristas, and Anastacio Hernández was a Chamorrista chief, and we belonged to the Chamorrista party, we were receiving orders from Cornelio Sandoval who lives in San Marcos de Colón, he has a hacienda in Dipilto, and he would get arms and send them to us, the first chief was Vallejos, the second chief Hernández, Vallejos was in El Espino, I do not know what instructions Lobo Gutiérrez gave to Hernández, Lovo asked me to stop going around with Vallejos, there is no one in Dipilto with guarantees signed by me, Antonio Prado, Agustín Ferrafino, and Eulogio Pastrana are the coffee growers in the pact who have guarantees, Vicente Paguaga, José María Paguaga, Celso Paguaga, and Jesús Paguaga used to be guaranteed to pick their coffee, Agustín Flores was with me, or with Anastacio, and Francisco Martínez was with me, Valentín González was also with me, we took some animals to eat, I returned the animals of Bacilio Salcedo and Alejandro Rodríguez, I had seven animals when I was captured but they were mine, I know Valentín Rodríguez but I have not seen him in San Fabian, I was never there, I knew that a commission from Vallejos killed him, when I received the letter from Lobo I tore it up, in the letter he told to stop bothering people, the coffee growers did not harvest their coffee, it was lost, Alfonso Rivas picked the coffee of Cornelio Sandoval, and Cornelio was in El Paraiso with Hernández, I being the second chief of Hernández, I did not receive a single cent, I have not received a single leter from Gómez, I am also a friend of Abraham Gutiérrez, I was never a prisoner, I went to Honduras, I was discharged from my post for being a guide for a column of Marines, the Hondurans captured me because I got drunk and shot off my pistol, I was in Honduras for four months, I am the owner of a property, I do not know why I am slandered, let it be known that I have never bothered anyone, the one who robbed the animals was Fernando Lozano. José E. Torres.



2.  DEPOSITIONS OF WITNESSES

Murders of May 24, 1927



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

I, Paula López, widow, resident of Mosonte, declare that on 24 May 1927, at around 2:00 a.m., Anastacio Hernández and his gang of bandits arrived in the village, and when they began to head toward my house I escaped with my family. One hour later we returned to find that Anastacio had burned all our clothes and religious images (las imágenes). Afterward, Emilio Ruiz arrived at my house and took my son Inés Pastrana, and Anastacio personally cut his head off, and his men macheted and shot him when he was already a cadaver. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

Yo, Marcelino Gómez, casado, de 72 años de edad vecino de Mozonte, en el Valle de Los Arados, conozco a Anastacio Hernández, y que el 24 de Mayo de 1927, después de las cinco de la mañana, se dirigían a mi casa disparando sus armas sobre mi casa, cuando apresaron un yerno mío, Domingo Gómez, saliendo de la cocina, dos hijos míos y otro yerno que pudieron escapar, los siguieron de balazos, al que tenían preso lo amarraron, y rompieron las puertas, saquearon todo lo que tenia, golpearon a mi esposa, y a mi yerno que lo tenían preso, lo baleron, en el abdomen, sacaron después a mi yerno y como a cincuenta varas de distancia, se paró el grupo, entonces Anastacio ordenó que le volaran la cabeza a Domingo, y el que ejecutó la orden, fue Santiago Gómez. acompañando de su hermano Terencio, después Anastacio macheteó el cadáver, mientras los otros tocaban un acordeón y vivaban a Anastacio. De los que conocí son: Timoteo Blanco de Dipilto, Julián Sevilla, Miguel López, Antonio, Sebastián y Miguel Aguilar, Erasmo Gómez, Felipe Gómez, Narciso Hernández, Rogelio Amaya, y otros más que no pude conocer, eran como treinta y se fueron gritando, que dejaban de muestra esos cuatro. Es cuanto sé y firmo,

[firmado] Marcelino Gómez.”



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
21 Febrero de 1928

I, Cayetana López, 45 years old, a widow, resident of the valley of Las Huertas in Mosonte declare that on May 24, 1927 at between 3:00 to 4:00 a.m., Anastacio Hernández and his bandits arrived, they captured my husband Eligio Ruiz and my nephew Inés Pastrana, who was 16 years old, they robbed us of all we had, shovels, machetes, clothes, etc. They took my husband and nephew away, they let my husband go after beating and injuring him, they killed my nephew in the first houses of the valley of Los Arados, with machete blows and bullets, cutting his head off. Those who accompanied Anastacio were Miguel López, Santiago Gómez, Terencio Gómez, and others more whom I do not remember, but whom I recognized. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
20 Febrero de 1928

I, Cupertina Amaya, widow, 38 years of age, living in Mozonte, declare that I know Anastacio Hernández and state that on the 24th of May 1927 at four o'clock in the morning in the company of Narciso Hernández, son of Anastacio, José María López, Marcelino Sierra, Gerónimo Pastrana, Julian Sevilla and son by the name of Rodríguez, Sebastian Aguilar, Miguel Aguilar, Miguel López, Jr., Felipe Marín, Rogelio Amaya, son-in-law of Anastacio, Manuel Florian, Lilial Forian, Timoteo Blanco, and others more which I did not recognize came in carrying rifles and pistols. They came into my house in Mozonte in the Valley of Los Arados, breaking down the doors, taking away my goods, killing my son Catalino Amaya, who was sleeping in a hammock, which still shows the marks of the bullets, because my son was shot the following way. One bullet went through his head, another hit his chest, and a third one hit his right arm. Besides they hit my sone with a machete on the head after they killed him. Then they took my husband Vital López, dragging him along the street, of course they had his hands tied; he was led by Terencio, Narciso and Rogelio Amaya together with Anastacio. After they had left with my husband (about 30 minutes) I could hear the shooting, so I ran to find my husband. I found him with 3 bullets in his body and his head cut off, also many signs of machete cuts. Here in Ocotal there is Froilán Larios, who took a shovel away, my daughter was kicked, and they tried to hit me with a machete. This is all I know; I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
20 Febrero de 1928

I, Maria Estebana Gómez, widow, 33 years old, resident of Mosonte, declare that I know Anastacio Hernández and that on 24 May 1927 he arrived at my house in the valley of Los Arados at around 6:00 a.m., breaking down the doors, taking my husband Domingo Gómez prisoner, who was in the kitchen, they tied him up, and Francisco López shot him in the abdomen. After this Terencio Gómez, Santiago Gómez, Juan F. Gómez, and Erasmo Gómez took him about fifty yards away from the house, where Hernández ordered that they cut my husband's head off, the order being executed by Santiago Gómez, and Anastacio also gave hum various machete cuts in his back. Those who were with Anastacio outraged me (me ultrajaron), the same as with my little niece. Julian Sevilla along with Anastacio gave orders to rape me (para que me tiraran). The bandits were Ismael Gómez, Elisio Gómez, Blas López, Ramon Guillermo Gómez, Narciso Hernández, Rogelio Amaya son-in-law of Anastacio, Felipe Marin, Marcelino Sierras, Purificación Gómez, José Maria López, José Miguel Aguilar, Sebastian Aguilar, Timoteo Blanco, Geronimo Pastrana, and others more whom I do not remember. This is all I know, and I sign,

[signed]  Maria Estebana Gómez




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

I, Lorenza Gómez, single, of age, resident of Mosonte, declare that on 24 May at around 6:00 a.m., three individuals arrived at my house: Erasmo Gómez and two others whom I did not know, at the orders of Anastacio Hernández, who stayed outside the house, they seized my son-in-law Vicente Gómez, they took him tied up and they killed him about half a league from my house, Anastacio had about thirty men with him. Anastacio was dressed in khaki. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

I, Placida Osegueda, 49 years old, widow, resident of Mosonte in the valley of Los Arados, declare that on 24 May 1927 at around 8:00 a.m. I was coming from Naranjito with my husband Francisco Hernández, brother of Anastacio Hernández, when we encountered Anastacio and his bandits in the place called El Portillo de Amatillo, when Anastacio ordered that they kill his brother, my husband. Those executing the order were Santiago Gómez and Terencio Gómez, the political nephews (sobrinos políticos) of Anastacio, shooting my husband once in the forehead. Those accompanying Anastacio were his son Narciso Hernández, Rogelio Amaya, Feliciano López, Marcelino Sierra, and others more whom I do not remember. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

I, Miguel Hernández, married, resident of Mosonte, declare that my son Anastacio Hernández has always tried to kill me and my wife, I do not remember the date but not long ago my son shot at me twice, one hit the sleeve of my shirt and the other by my belt, accompanying him were Narcisco Hernández, my grandson and his son, and Luis Guerrero, Anatacio's son-in-law. He said that he would not leave the place until he had the head of his father and the tounge of his mother in his saddlebags. All my life he has persecuted me, burning my pastures, destroying my fences so the animals could get into my fields and destroy my property, because of his persecution I had to sell my farm and flee with my wife. On 24 May, he arrived in the village of Mosonte and robbed all he found, clothes and working implements, and fifty pesos in silver. Those who have helped him with money, arms, ammunition and in other ways have been Don Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo, Gustavo Paguaga, and Pedro Lobo. Especially, Don Gustavo Paguaga helped him get arms, because in earlier times when he was jefe político he hid many arms and later gave them to Anastacio for him to kill his enemies and all the Liberals he could find. Always when Anastacio committed some murder he would send them notice or come in person to tell these men what had happened. Miguel López, Anastacio Zamora, Jorge Pastrana, and Luis A. Gómez used to be his messengers when he was in Dipilto. Those who accompanied Anastacio on 24 May in Mosonte killed the following six persons: Inés Pastrana López, Vital López Osequeda, Catalino Amaya Lobo, Domingo Gómez López, Vicente Gómez, Francisco Hernández, my son and his brother. Those accompanying him were Cayetano Gómez with four sons: Aquileo, Felipe, Ismael, and Elisio Gómez, Isaac Gómez, Erasmo Gómez, Pedro Gómez, Santiago, Terencio, Juan, and Purificación Gómez, Pablo Florian, Malaquias Florian, Lilialdo Florian, Manuel Florian, Miguel López, Sebastian Aguilar, Miguel Aguilar, José Miguel Aguilar, Rogelio Amaya, Timoteo Blanco, these were the men I recognized in the group that arrived at my house, the others I could not see because it was around 1:00 a.m., but these I did see because they came into my house and when I saw them I ran.

This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    his mark



Murders of September 9, 1927


DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

I, Benita López, 19 years old, single, resident of Mosonte in the valley of Zazalo, declare that on 9 September 1927 Anastacio Hernández and his gang came to my house at about noon, killing my brothers Norberto and Celso López, and taking away as prisoner my brother Tomás López. Anastacio personally killed my brother Celso, cutting his head off, while David and Antonio Cárdenas killed Norberto López with machetes and rifles. Tómas was hanged by his hands, this being executed by Cárdenas and Timoteo Blanco. After this they took him out and killed him at El Zapote, where they killed four others, including Eulogio Mejia and Francisco Zamora, I do not know the names of the other two. Those accompanying Hernández were José Torres, Samuel Melgara, José María López, Tiburcio Landero, Ventura López, Ventura Landero, Nazario Vásquez, Lucas Vásquez, Anselmo Blandino, Raimundo Torres, Martin López, Brigido López, Miguel López, Maximiliano López, Julio López, Pedro López, Tito Ruiz, Fernando Zamora, Calixto Zamora, Zacarias López, Basilio Florian, Juan Ramón López, and others more whose names I do not recall. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
21 Febrero de 1928

I, Cresencia García, married, of age, resident of Mosonte, declare that on 9 September 1927 at around noon, Anastacio Hernández and his bandits arrived at my house, among them David Cárdenas, Antonio Cárdenas, Timoteo Blanco, Zeledon Díaz, José Torres, Nazario Vásquez, Lucas Vásquez, Anselmo Blandino, Calixto Zamora, Fernando Zamora, Santos Zamora, Rosendo Tercero, and others whom I did not recognize. As they arrived they shot off their guns many times, and when Anastacio entered in person he cut off the head and macheted my son Selso López, another named Norberto López they shot and killed in the house, my other son Tomas López was taken away tied up and they killed him in El Zapote. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark




DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
22 Febrero de 1928

I, Eugenia Landero, resident of Mosonte, declare: that on 9 September 1927 at about noon, Anastacio Hernández with his band arrived at my house in the valley of Zazalo. They fired their guns off in front of the house, then they came in and Anastacio personally cut my husband's head off, after he and Timoteo Blanco had shot him. Norberto López, my brother-in-law, was murdered in the same way by order of Anastacio, the order being executed by David and Antonio Cárdenas. They took my brother-in-law Tómas López out and near the house, there they hanged him with his hands tied behind his back for a long while, after which they took him along and he never did show up again. They say that they killed him in El Zapote. Those in the company of Anastacion were Nazaro Vásquez, Anselmo Blandino, Eusebio Ruiz, Secundino Ruiz, Lucas Vásquez, Fernando and Calixto Zamora, Tiburcio Landero, José Torres, Eligio Ruiz, Casimiro Ruiz, Ventura Caceres, Agustin Flores, Samuel Melgara, Rosendo Tercero, and others more whom I did not recognize. I bring also the hat of my dead husband which shows the machete blows. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
20 Febrero de 1928

I, Antonio López, married, 56 years old, resident of Mosonte in the valley of Zazalo, declare that on 9 September 1927, I was here in Ocotal when I received the news that Anastacio Hernández had killed my sons, so I went to the chief of the Guardia to ask for help to go and remove the cadavers. Pedro Lobo acted as interpreter and told me that the Captain said that they were going to send a telegram to Managua asking permission to sent a patrol, and until it was answered they could not help me, this was around 2:00 p.m. The next day, I went again to look for Don Pedro Lobo and he sent me to the Guardia, there the chief told me that they would follow me with a patrol. When I arrived at my house I found my two sons Selso and Norberto López, the one married and the other single, dead from bullets and machete blows. My other son Tomás, 20 years old, was taken away, tied up by Anastacio, and he never did show up again, people say he was killed in the place called El Zapote. My wife, my two daughters, my mother-in-law, and my daughter-in-law told me that Anastacio Hernández had arrived with his gang, and killed my two sons and took the other prisoner. This is all I know, and I sign,

[signed]  Gregorio A. López



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
2 Marzo de 1928

I, Gerónima López, resident of Mosonte in the valley of El Zapote, declare that on 10 September 1927, at around 2:00 in the afternoon, Anastacio Hernández arrived at my home, along with Nicolas Ruiz and others more whom I did not know. My husband Eulogio Mejía was out working, when Anastacio personally bound him and his companions with rope, they already had other prisoners, there were about five of them, together with my husband. They took them about half a league distance and killed them, my husband was killed with machete blows and the others, Francisco Zamora, Eugenio Muñoz, Adolfo Muñoz, and others more whom I did not know, it was impossible to pick up their corpses, as they were cut up into pieces. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
2 Marzo de 1928

I, Manuel Zamora, resident of Mosonte in the valley of El Zapote, delcare that on 10 December 1927, Anastacio Hernández arrived at my house, along with Luis Guerrero, Nicolas Ruiz, Teofilo López, Nicomedes Ruiz, Roman Ruiz, Antonio Medina, Teodoro Medina, Torcuato Medina, Balvino Muñoz, José Amado Muñoz, José Ezequiel Pastrana, Francisco Pastrana, Pascual Pastrana, Norberto Pastrana, father and son, and others more whom I did not recognize. They took my father Francisco Zamora, and my brothers Eugenio Muñoz Zamora and Adolfo Muñoz Zamora prisoner. They killed Eugenio in the house with machete blows, he was unable to run because he had a bad foot. They tied my father up and shot him in the abdomen, afterward they macheted him. They hit my brother Adolfo, who was sick in bed, with the blunt edge of the machete, forcing him to get up and walk around, they dragged him to the place called Quebrada Seca, about half a league from my house. They did not capture me because I was outside of the house, less than one hundred yards away, I got close enough to see everything that happened and was able to recognize all the above-mentioned individuals, afterward I hid in a corn crib and I saw them and they could not see me. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    his mark



DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
2 Marzo de 1928

I, Catalina Mejía, resident of Mosonte in the valley of El Zapote declare that on 10 September 1927, Anastacio Hernández, Nicolas Ruiz, and others whom I did not recognize arrived at my home at around mid-day, and Anastacio ordered that they tie up my father and they took him prisoner, Hernández had other men with him as prisoners, all of whom were killed by machete blows about half a league from my house, my father Eulogio Mejía received about ten machete cuts, and the others were hacked to pieces. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark



Murders of September 16, 1927


DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
2 Marzo de 1928

I, María Apolonia Muñoz, of the valley of Cuje, delcare that on Friday, 16 September 1927, at around 5:00 in the afternoon Anastacio Hernández and José Torres arrived at my house at the head of a group of bandits, of these I recognized David Cárdenas, Antonio Cárdenas, Toribio Martínez, Pascual López, Benito Paz, Teodoro Martínez, Remigio González, and Antonio Landero, the others I did not recognize. They arrived and assassinated my father Tomas González and three workers he had hired to help him, they were Genaro García, Marcos Antonio López, and Claudio Gómez. Hernández and Torres killed my father with machete blows and Anastacio cut his head off, the workers were killed by machete blows by the bandits who accompanied Hernández and Torres. They took me prisoner and threated my life. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    her mark


Murders of October 12, 1927


In Telpaneca at 11:00 a.m., on 23 February 1928, before me is señora Candida González, single, 40 years of age, of domestic offices, living in this town, in order to declare what she knows about the murders committed in the valley of Amucayan by Anastacio Hernández, the Cárdenas brothers, and Tiburcio Polanco, and advised of the criminal penalties for false testimony promises to tell the truth and declares: that on 12 October 1927, she was in the house of her father Cristino González when Anastacio Hernández, David, Antonio, and Martin Cárdenas and Tiburcio Polanco, with a group of about fourteen appeared at around noon, and they captured her father Cristino González and her son Gregorio González; that her father Cristino González, being old man of sixty years, was killed him with a machete in the yard of the house as he was going out the door, his head was cut off by David Cárdenas; that the others left, leaving the cadaver in the yard and they carried his son Gregorio, who they took and killed in Buena Vista; and on this same day the same bandits murdered various other persons and robbed the whole Valley of Amucayan. That before these murders Martin Cárdenas with various others, among them Celedonio Díaz, killed Don Romualde Melgara in the valley of Carbonal of this jurisdiction, they killed him in the house of señor Gregorio Martínez, and the same with a son of señor Melgara. That she does not know any more than what she has stated here with respect to the death of her father Cristino González and her son Gregorio González, declaring that she has told the truth, and reading what is written the declarer accepts it and does not sign for not knowing how to write.

[signed]  Nicanor Espinosa


In Telpaneca, at 11:00 a.m., on 25 February 1928, here before me is señora Cleofa Bacilio, 32 years old, widow, of domestic offices, living in this town, being called in order to declare what she knows regarding the murders committed in the valley of Amucayan in this district by bandits, declares that her name is as indicated, and warned of the penalties for false testimony offers to tell the truth and declares that on 12 October 1927, being in her house in the valley of Amucayan, Anastacio Hernández, David Cárdenas, Antonio Cárdenas, Abraham Bacilio, and a group of around twenty men whose names she does not recall, came into her house and seized her husband Gregorio González, tying him, and taking him over to Buena Vista, where they killed him. Minutes before they seized her husband they killed her father-in-law Cristino González, this personally being done by David Cárdenas, who afterward cut his head off with a machete. This happened in the entryway of the house. Martin Cárdenas was also with them. This is all she remembers, the declaration has been read to her and she agrees with its contents, and she does not sign for not knowing how to write.

[signed]  Nicanor Espinosa


Murders of October 17, 1927


DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
25 Febrero de 1928

Yo, Juan Amaya, vecino de Mozonte, Valle del Rodeo, declaro que el 17 de Octubre dia Lunes 1927, como a las cuatro de la tarde llegó Anastacio Hernández, en compnia de su cuadrilla a mi casa de habitación, y caturaron a mi sobrino José Espectación Amaya de diesiseis años de edad, la muerte se la dieron, a balazos y machetazos, yo pude escaparme corriendo siendo perseguido a balazos, uno de los cuales me dió en el brazo derecho y muestro la herida que es recinente. José Angel Amaya otro sobrino mio fue macheteado por los bandidos. Es cuanto se y firmo,

[signed]  Juan Amaya

English Translation:  I, Juan Amaya, resident of Mosonte in the valley of Rodeo, declare that on Monday, 17 October 1927, at around 4:00 p.m., Anastacio Hernández and his gang arrived at my home, and they captured by nephew José Espectación Amaya, 16 years of age, they killed him with bullets and machetes, I was able to escape running away from gunshots, one of which hit me in the right arm, I show the wound which is recent. José Angel Amaya is another nephew of mine who was macheted to death by the bandits. This is all I know, and I sign, Juan Amaya.


Murders of August 1927 and October 12 and 13, 1927


In Telpaneca, at nine o'clock in the morning on 23 February 1928, here before me is señor Celedonio Martínez, sixty-two years of age, married, farmer, and of this town, being called to declare what he knows about the murders committed in the Valle de Amucayan by Anastacio Hernández, David Cárdenas, Martin Cárdenas, Antonio Cárdenas, Tiburcio Polanco, and many others he claims not to know, declares: that he is neutral and offered to tell the truth: Early in the morning on 13 October 1927, the above mentioned men came into his house and captured his son Abraham Martínez, who they tied up and led away to the place called La Montañita in the Valle de Amucayan, where they killed him, and after this they cut his body into pieces, and it was impossible to bury his remains because of the presence of the murderers, the remains are still there in the brush. And on the same day the same men, Anastacio Hernández, Martin, David, and Antonio Cárdenas, and Tiburcio Polanco, killed Pedro Gutiérrez and Lino Castellón. On 12 October 1927 the same murderers captured señor Cristino González in his home, and after they robbed everything in his house and there they all killed him with machete blows. On the same day at the same time they killed Apolonio Melgara and Ricardo Melgara, in El Divisadero del Ocotal. He knows this for having spoken to some of the murderers who have returned. In the month of August the same murderers killed Mateo Hernández, Francisco Hernández, Seferino Cárdenas, Abraham Cárdenas, Adrian Pérez, and Toribio Martínez. This is all he knows, and he has declared the truth, and the contents of this declaration being read to the declarer, he states he accepts and ratifies it, and does not sign for not knowing how to write.

[signed]   Nicanor Espinosa


Murders of November 1927


DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
21 Febrero de 1928

I, Julio Maradiaga Gadea, 21 years old, resident of Ocotal, declare that in November 1927, I do not know the exact date, I was captured by Anastacio Hernández and José Torres in El Zapote. They had already captured Moisés Vilchez, Concepción Vilchez, Porfiria Vilchez and a little girl of 10 years, and Santiago Bellorin. Hernández and Torres had two detachments, one with Torres and one with Hernández. Torres killed Santiago Bellorin, shooting him seven times and hitting him six times with a machete, and the child was also shot. Torres captured me, and my other companions were captured by Anastacio in El Guanapate, and they wanted to kill me by shooting me, but they did not wound me, they were taking me as a prisoner when I was taken before Vilchez and let free, they told me that I had guarantees given by Abelino Herrera of El Jícaro, Hernández let the others go free also, they stripped us of all our clothes and money and left us almost naked, I did not know those with Torres, but only recognized their faces. This is all I know and I sign,

[signed] Julio Maradiaga


Event of September or October 1927


DIVISION HEADQUARTERS, NUEVA SEGOVIA, GUARDIA NACIONAL
Ocotal, Nicaragua
25 Febrero de 1928

I, Francisco López, resident of Ocotal, declare that in the month of October 1927, on my farm a league from this town in the direction of Dipilto on the road to Honduras, I saw Dr. Abraham Gutiérrez Lobo and Anastacio Hernández talking alone, they were talking for a long time, I could not hear what they were saying, and afterward they went in different directions, Don Abraham for Ocotal and Anastacio toward Dipilto. Both were mounted and it was around 4:00 p.m. The month might not have been October, but the month before. This is all I know, I do not sign for not knowing how to write.

X    his mark


PART III  •   ADDITIONAL SOURCES

Select Newspaper Stories & Intelligence Reports



El Centroamericano (León), 8 June 1924

Peligroso criminal capturado
  
El Jefe Político de Nueva Segovia participa al señor Ministro de Gobernación haber capturado al monstruo Anastasio Hernández, denunciado por su padre Manuel Hernández de haber querido ultimarlo disparándole dos balazos, que or obra de la Providencia no dieron en el blanco, en el punto llamado Valle de los Andes, en jurisdicción de Mosonte. El desnaturalizado criminal ha sido entregado al juez respectivo. Francamente en estos casos es que aceptamos la aplicación de la lay de Linch.



PART IV   •   PHOTOGRAPHS OF JOSÉ EULALIO TORRES

National Penitentiary, Managua, ca. October 1928.  Record Group 127, Archives II, College Park, MD

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