Header image
atlantic coast HOMEPAGE
ETHNIC COMMUNITIES, EXPORT ENCLAVES, MISSIONARIES, MARINES & GUARDIA & THE EDSN IN THE ATLANTIC COAST REGION

DOCUMENTARY
ANNEX

TO ACCOMPANY
ARTICLE IN
THE JOURNAL
DIALECTICAL
ANTHROPOLOGY

DEC 2012

 

DOCUMENTARY
ANNEX

ON SANDINO'S ACQUISITION OF ARMS NEAR PUERTO CABEZAS IN JANUARY 1927

WITH LINKS TO HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE ATLANTIC COAST & RÍO COCO



A T L A N T I C    C O A S T    D O C S
thru 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 +

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   THIS IS THE HOMEPAGE for over 2,300 digital images of hitherto unpublished archival documents relating to Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast region in the time of the Sandino rebellion. The collection houses materials from the following repositories:

•  US NATIONAL ARCHIVES, RECORDS OF THE US DEPT OF STATE (RG 84), THE US MARINES & GUARDIA NACIONAL (RG127) & THE MILITARY INTELLIGENCE DIVISION (RG 165)
•  MARINE CORPS RESEARCH CENTER, QUANTICO VA
•  LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, WASHINGTON D.C.
•  MORAVIAN CHURCH ARCHIVES, BETHLEHEM, PA
•  PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE, LONDON, UK
•  VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE, LEXINGTON VA
•  TULANE UNIVERSITY, NEW ORLEANS, LA
•  HEMEROTECA NACIONAL RUBÉN DARÍO, MANAGUA
•  THE INSTITUTO DE ESTUDIO DE SANDINISMO, LATER ABSORBED BY THE IHNCA-UCA, MANAGUA
•  ALSO INCLUDED ARE NEARLY 100 DIGITAL IMAGES OF RELEVANT PUBLISHED MATERIALS, MANY FROM SANDINO'S WRITINGS RELATING TO THE COAST
•  WITH LINKS TO HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPHS OF SOME OF THE EPISODES DESCRIBED HERE, HOUSED IN ATL-COCO IN THE PHOTO PAGES

Photo above & this website's symbol for these Atlantic Coast pages: Boatmen in El Gallo, Nicaragua, during the flood of 23-25 July 1928, from the photo album of USMC Pfc. Fred Nelson, purchased on eBay, collection of Michael J. Schroeder

      ORGANIZATION.   The collection, organized chronologically, begins immediately below and spans 53 webpages.  At present, some 1,076 documents are available in 2,311 JPEG images.  Each webpage also offers a critical introduction to the documents it houses.  This collection is intended in part as a documentary annex to my article in the journal Dialectical Anthropology (December 2012), "Cultural Geographies of Grievance and War:  Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast Region in the First Sandinista Revolution, 1926-1934."  A second set of 14 webpages examining key topics & themes is accessible HERE and on the sidebar to the left.  In other words, this is the homepage to a collection of 67-plus webpages on the Atlantic Coast.

     NAVIGATION.   To facilitate navigation, this Atlantic Coast document collection (ATL-Docs) is organized into 12 chronological sections, each covering a 6-month period.  Each of these 12 sections is subdivided into several webpages (depending on the number of documents), with up to 50 document images per webpage.  Each individual document image is thumbnailed and can be viewed as a JPEG file.  All 53 Atlantic Coast webpages are accessible via the navigation box at the top & bottom of every Atlantic Coast webpage (called "East Coast" in the masthead because "Atlantic Coast" is too long).  Links to four historical maps appear at the top of every compilation of documents.  Authors' names are highlighted in dark red, and documents more than two pages long are numbered with large red letters.

     ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.   Many of the documents here were photographed from photocopies made by Dr. David C. Brooks on his visits to these various repositories.  I thank Dr. Brooks for generously sharing his collection of Atlantic Coast materials.  A good number of others were dug out of the archives and digitally prepared for publication here by Pleet Grant-funded Lebanon Valley College student researchers Melissa Zellner & Nicholas Quadrini, who I thank for their excellent work.  Many thanks are also due to Arnold Grant-funded Lebanon Valley College student researchers Callan D. Wendell, Morgan A. Hartmoyer, Lindsay Griendling, and Laura Cramer for their excellent work transcribing documents, and Zak Knecht for his help with the maps.  The Pleet Initiative for Student-Faculty Collaboration, the Arnold Grant for Experiential Education, and the Dick Joyce Endowment of Lebanon Valley College provided much-needed assistance for the development of these East Coast pages.  This project is also indebted to my friend Linda M. Kinney for all her assistance with this project & these pages, including many transcriptions & helpful suggestions.  A special thanks also goes out to Mr. Richard Siu, originally from Bluefields, who stumbled into the website and generously offered to help transcribe documents; many of his transcriptions grace these pages.  In his own words, "I am deeply indebted to the Moravian Missionaries who gave so much to the East Coast, to myself, and to countless generations of Moravian & other youths who have become professionals in such fields as business, education, medicine, nursing, economy, politics, and agriculture, and who now are returning many benefits to Nicaragua both at home and abroad."  Thank you, Richard Siu!

REFERENCES & CITATIONS

     In the likely event that new documents are discovered and added to this collection, the specific location and URL of individual documents might change.  The best way to cite these Atlantic Coast Docs is thus not by specific location or URL but by date, author, and document image number if needed, e.g.:  ATL-Docs 30.02.04 Linscott, p. 2 refers to the second image for the Atlantic Coast document of Feb. 4, 1930, authored by Guardia Capt. H. D. Linscott, which can be found via the navigation box for the first half of 1930 (chronological section no. 6, in shorthand 1930A).  NB: Because two or more pages were sometimes put together to make a single photocopy in order to save money in the archives, the referenced page number might not correspond to the page number of the original document. 

     ARCHIVAL CITATIONS:  The archival citation is usually part of the digital image, either written on the digitized photocopy, or photographed on a little card next to the document; when it is not, the full citation can be found in the notes accompanying the document image.

CRITICAL INTRODUCTION TO PAGE 1

     The collection begins with the relevant sections of the 1920 census – the first state-directed census in modern Nicaraguan history – which despite its shortcomings offers a very useful sketch of the demographic makeup of the Coast.  Not included here are the State Dept records documenting the formation of Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company in Puerto Cabezas from 1923, or any of the consular reports from the East Coast in the first half of the 1920s.  The report of Bragmans’ auditor (July 8, 1925) provides much data and an insider’s perspective on diverse aspects of the company’s operations in Puerto Cabezas.  Complementing his report is the 1926 Bragmans Bluff map of the company town, a fascinating text that clearly depicts the company’s efforts to deepen racial-ethnic divisions by inscribing the Indian-Spanish divide in the organization of company space.  The Bluefields Consular District’s “General Information Sheet” offers useful basic information on the Coast (Feb. 1, 1926).

     Conservative President Emiliano Chamorro’s coup d’etat (lomazo) of 25 October 1925 set in motion a chain of events that led to 1926-1927 Civil War between Liberals & Conservatives.  The dramatic events of May 1926, with the Liberal assault on Bluefields and their tactical defeat by US-supported Conservative forces later in the month, are described in US Consul McConnico’s telegrams of 6, 13, 26 & 29 May.  Also meriting close attention are the letters between Bluefields Creole activist Anna Crowdell and Dr. Oliver Thomas, for the sense they convey of the political discourse that fueled the Liberal revolution.  No less revealing are the other letters, depositions & papers of Costeños that ended up in the archives & are presented here for the windows they provide on this pivotal period in Nicaraguan history.

     The page closes
at the end of November 1926, when no one knows which side will prevail in this unfolding struggle between Liberals & Conservatives, or what unintended & unforeseen consquences that struggle will engender.

PERIOD MAPS

1894 mosquito shore

27 MB, library of congress

1920s Standard Fruit Co.

6.5 mb, US National archives

1928 Rio wanks Patrol

3 mb, us national archives

1931 Moravian

2.4 mb, comenius press

       

       

1920.
Nicaragua, Censo General de la República.  
The year 1920 saw the first state-directed census since the colonial period. Reading left to right & top to bottom, the first four pages are on all 13 departamentos and two comarcas; the next 15 pages on the Departamento de Bluefields; the next four on the Comarca Cabo Gracias a Dios, and the last page on the Comarca San Juan del Norte.

18 December 1923.
Complaints of Mosquito Indians, US Minister Ramer, Managua, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C.  
"Minister for Foreign Affairs informs me the commission will hear only the complaints of Mosquito Indians arising from execution of the Harrison-Altamirano treaty."  [NOTE: the actual complaints of the Miskitu are not included here.  The US State Department's Decimal File 817.52 (reel 94 in Microfilm 632, or M632) includes several hundred pages of documents from 1923 to 1925 on the complaints of the Miskitu Indians, on contract negotiations between the Nicaraguan government and Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, and related topics. To economize on labor, these documents are not included in these webpages.  For the State Department's inventory of M632, see USDS-DOCS.]

1.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 1.
 "Dear Mr. Miceli ¶ I wish to acknowledge receipt of your letter of June 23rd, referring to details of various work which was done here during your absence, and of which I wrote you in my letter on June 2nd. I have read your letter very carefully, and note what you have to say in reference to the various documents; and since you ask for information, I am trying to give you in detail what I think you should be interested in knowing: ¶ DINING ROOM AND MESSES: In this particular department I wish to state that last month I watched the operation very closely and kept daily track of it, and I am glad to say that for this month of June while all three kitchens were consolidated the net losses of Kitchen No. 3 was $526.46, against a net loss of $1,184.64 on Nos. 1, 2, and 3 Kitchens for the month of May. You can see that under this new system and new stewardship we have effected the first month a saving of $658.18. Now, you can go back over the reports, or get Mr. Amiss to show you, that we have been practically losing every month an average of $1,180.00 on operation of these three kitchens. If we continue to effect a saving of even half, that will be a good deal better than it was before. However, Mr. O’Brien, the steward, tells me that he thinks he will be able to gradually do better little later on. ¶ As for the private dining room for heads of departments, which you have planned, I am sorry to say that when this mess was first opened, the flies and the heat were such in the little dining room that very little attention was given to it, and most of the heads did not especially care to eat there on account of the many flies. As you know, we were without screens at the time and could not help matters much, and in that particular instance the families of employees practically took possession of it, and interfered to a great extent with the employee themselves getting their meals during regular meal hours. This has been adjusted, as since that time they have to wait until the employees are through with their meals before they come to the table. We have not enough room to accommodate them all, and therefore thought it best to let them have their meals after the employees had finished. . . . "

2.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 2.
 " . . . ¶ STEWARD: I noticed what you have to say in reference to the steward, and for your information I wish to state most emphatically that whoever told you that this man was under the influence of liquor and had to be brought to his room by friends, told you an absolute lie. In the month and a half that Mr. O’Brien has been with us, I have found him at all times to be a perfect gentleman, not only from a social standpoint but from a business standpoint as well. You can readily see that he is a good manager. Of course I cannot say that Mr. O’Brien never takes a drink, but I can assure you this much, that he has never been drunk since he has been on the job. He gives the mess and the hotels his personal supervision, endeavoring at all times to please each and every one to the best of his ability, and at the same time enforcing whatever rules and regulations he has been instructed to enforce, and I think that everybody is very well satisfied with him. However, I will leave you to be the judge when you come down here and see the big difference in the management of this particular department, and as you will see from the figures I have given you, this more than anything else tells the story. As you know, results are what count. ¶ BAKERY: I am sorry to say that the oven that was built during the time that you were here, after we had been operating it for about a month, began crumbling to pieces, and we had to discontinue the baking of bread, having to tear down the entire construction and rebuild another oven with fire bricks. I understand that the fault was in the bricks and the mixture that was used in laying them; nevertheless, we had to build the whole thing over again, and it will be ready within the next four or five days. In the meantime, George Sherry is baking his bread at old kitchen No. 2, and making very good bread at that. We have reached the point where sometimes he would bake as high as 467 loaves a day to take care of Hotel No. 3 and the sales in the commissary and he had gotten to the point where he was making real to goodness bread. ¶ HOUSING FOR FAMILIES: I note carefully what you have to say in this connection, and I assure you that this housing proposition has gotten to be quite a question here. The three last houses are not yet completed. However, they will all be completed this month, and still that will not give us enough room for all of the families that are wanting to come down here. I am giving you a list of how they are now: ¶ House No. 85, Apartment A, Trolley family; ¶ 85 B, Caruso and Chavez families; ¶ 86 C, Hill family; ¶ 86 D, Rosenberg and Darce families; ¶ 87 E, Carlisle family; ¶ 87 F, Parrino family. ¶ Now that these three above houses are occupied as you had outlined, it still leave the line-up for these that are not completed as follows: ¶ House No. 88, Apartment G, Lee family and Weinman; ¶ 88 H, Caruso family; ¶ 89 J, Darce family; ¶ 90 K, Vacant; ¶ 90 L, Vacant. . . . "

3.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 3.
 " . . . ¶ You will see from the above that we only have, after we make these moves as you had contemplated, this last house which will be vacant, and we have the following families who desire to come here: ¶ Mr. Thomas, master mechanic, wife and no children; he has stated that he has made the necessary arrangements with the Carlisle family to stay with them until he can get a house. ¶ Mr. Biery, foreman of the carpenter shop, also wants his wife to come down; he has no children. ¶ Mr. Wells, planning mill foreman, and the planning mill feeder both want to get their wives down. ¶ So I think, according to this, it would be alright to let these people come, if the above arrangements suit you; however, I will show this letter to Don Pedro before sending it, and he will write you or wire you as to whether or not to let any families come down on the next boat. ¶ BOARDING OF EMPLOYEES' FAMILIES: I have read with interest your remarks in this connection, and inasmuch as the families that we have here have a house completely furnished with a stove and other necessities, I do not see why we should be called upon to feed these people at our mess. Some of the ladies who are still eating at our mess are very frank in their statement that they are only eating there on account that it is costing them cheaper to do that than to fix meals at their own homes. As you very well know, Mr. John, these folks have really little, or hardly anything at all to do here, and if they would not have a little meal to look after, time would hang mighty slowly on their hands; and naturally when this happens they all begin attending to other peoples’ business instead of their own, and this in itself has a lot to do with creating dissatisfaction among the employees, and besides it works a hardship on the steward and the kitchen help, due to the fact that some days they come and sometimes they do not and he cannot properly regulate his meals not knowing how many he is going to feed. This has already happened on several occasions, due to the heavy rains which prevent them from coming at meal times, and then some of them would come in away after regular meal hours; and taking everything into consideration, I believe that it is a bad precedent to set. If they are so anxious to come down here and get a house, let them go to work and occupy this house and do the necessary, and I sincerely trust that upon your return you will regulate these matters so that we will be relieved of having to look after and take care of families at our mess. ¶ REQUISITIONS FOR BEDS: I am glad to note that you have ordered the beds requisitions for use at Hotel No. 2 and to finish up supplying the vacant rooms at Hotel No. 3. This will certainly be a great help to us in getting everything fixed up, I will do as you suggest and get from there all of the iron beds that were furnished before your time. However, these beds will all have to be painted over again. As for the mattresses, they have been used by so many various and varied classes that I would suggest that they be destroyed or given to some of the Indians as I am sure the greater portion of them must be unfit for use. . . . "

4.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 4.
 " . . . ¶ Commissary Department: I note what you say in reference to this department, and I must say that we have experienced quite a bit of trouble in this department to function properly; I must say though that since Mr. Rosenberg has taken charge, it has been running just about like we would like to see it. Mr. Rosenberg has jumped right in and got his stock straightened up and in good shape, making one requisition a day against the wholesale department. In connection with the commissary, as you know, he is also looking after the meat, ice plant and bread, and of course having to look after all of this, he gets the kicks from everybody on the Bluff. Of course there are some people that you can never satisfy, no matter how hard you try, and it seems as if we are unlucky enough to have that class predominating here. We are unable to receive or accept standing requisitions for tenderloin steak, as some of our people would like to have it, but at the same time we are trying to give them the best we can. We have in the butcher shop the second butcher that came from Ceiba, and whereas he can kill and butcher a beef, he is not what you would call a meat cutter, but is doing the best he can, and we have no complaints at all to make against him. He does his own butchering and his own meat cutting, and seems to be a very good man. Mr. Rosenberg weighs out the meat every morning and reweighs what he has left and checks him out every day, and I must say that the check is very close; of course it is always a little under, but he has proven to us that this cannot be avoided. For instance, we took a hind quarter, he cut and sawed it in half, we had him weigh it first and after this operation reweigh it, and it showed a loss of a pound and a quarter. So you see it is practically impossible for him to come out just exactly. I didn’t myself believe that this was possible until it was actually proven. ¶ ICE PLANT: I think I have already written you in reference to the operation of the ice plant, and I wish to say that it is entirely out of reason to believe that we can continue the operation of this plant and sell a few of these blocks and keep our cold strong going. The plant is entirely too small for this purpose, and as these families are increasing in number and they all want ice—in fact, I don’t know of anybody that does not want ice—and you can see what trouble we have trying to supply from these five little blocksthat we get out. So while you are in New Orleans I think it would be a very good idea for you to take up this matter with your people and see if it would not be possible to get a good size one; I am sure that we could make money out of it; we can get nearly anything we can ask for ice, even from the laborers, and I do not think it would be a very hard matter to dispose of this small plant that we have now. Please think this over and give it your attention. ¶ LIVE STOCK: We just received last week 106 heads of steers that were brought here by Mr. Rafael Rivera. He has 40 more heads that he will bring within the next two or three weeks that were left some place up in the interior close by. This terminates Mr. Rivera’s contract with us, and he is very anxious to see if he cannot make another contract. However, he stated that these cattle will come a little dearer, as he has to go further up into the interior to get them. Since the beginning of the last . . . "

5.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 5.
 " . . . month the Farms Department is killing their own cattle. We sent from this lot 20 heads to the farm and 14 of the small native mules that we had to buy from Rivera, but these 20 heads will not least them very long and the eighty some odd heads that we have here will barely run us sixty days, as the demand for meat among the employees is getting larger every day. Therefore, I think it would be well to look into this cattle proposition as soon as possible with a view of making necessary arrangements to keep us supplied. This matter, however, you can take up upon your return here. ¶ NEW WHARF CONSTRUCTION: Mr. Tupper tells me that he believes that by the return of the next boat the wharf will be completed. Here’s hoping that he is right. We wired last Saturday that the wharf was 55 percent complete to bent No. 179; they are through driving the last bent, No. 180, and are coming back now to finish up the 40 percent and put the fender piles; so if we have any kind of good weather and nothing happens, on August 8th the wharf will be practically completed; and after this is done, Mr. John, I think that we ought to devote every bit of energy towards the building of our railroad and getting into the banana land. ¶ NEW SAWMILL CONSTRUCTION: There seems to be quite a bit of dissatisfaction among some of the employees at the new saw mill. Every boat that comes and leaves brings from one to three or four away. I don’t seem to be able to find out just exactly what is the trouble, only I think that a good many of these men that come down here represent themselves to be first-class millwrights or such, but when actually put to work they do not seem to be able to do that work; consequently they get dissatisfied and leave. However, from the looks of things, it is nearing completion rapidly, and I noticed that the boiler shed and boilers and foundations are under construction. A good part of the machinery has already been installed in the mill, and as for the woodwork, this is practically all completed, with the exception of the green chain which runs out of the mill from the trimmer. ¶ LOGGING CAMP OPERATIONS: I understand that they have begun cutting additional trees for material needed for the wharf and Wawa bridge. It seems that the trees that were on hand when you left were not any good and they could not get the necessary material from these. This information I got from Don Pedro when I asked him about the additional logging that was being done. This little mill No. 1 did better last month than any time before in its history. It averaged about 28,000 feet a day every day that it ran, cutting something like 563,000 feet in twenty days during the month of June. We are also hewing some ties by contact and are still cutting out the necessary piling for the bridge and the wharf. The piling crew is being handled by Guido and the ties are gotten out by contract at twenty cents a tie. ¶ BUILDINGS AND GENERAL CONSTRUCTION: The new M. & S. building is progressing very nicely. However, the severe rains and winds that we have had have interested a great deal with all outside work. Still I do not think that we could expect much more, considering the bad weather we have . . . "

6.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 6.
 " . . . been having. We have also under construction the roundhouse or engine shed. They should be finished within the next ten or fifteen days. Aside from that, there is very little construction being done, with the exception of the last three double houses and the general overhauling of the two oldest buildings in Indian quarters; these are being remodeled and fixed over, as during these rains it was just like being outside, and since we had quite a bit of lumber in these large buildings, we thought it advisable to go ahead and put a little bit more and get a half-way decent structure and keep these poor people out of the rain and water. ¶ MERCHANDISE DEPARTMENT: This department seems to be taking care of itself pretty well. However, I think that Angus is still a little weak, but with proper urging he will eventually make out pretty well. He has not been ordering merchandise, only what was absolutely necessary, and as far as his groceries and other staple goods are concerned, he watched that very closely and ordered along the lines that you had suggested. I presume that Mr. Furey has gone over the question of the large amount of drygoods stock that we had on hand, and I presume by this time you have received my letter in which I stated that we had let Beer & Moody have some of our prints and ginghams on ninety days’ time. Personally I think we made a very good deal, even though it takes six months to collect it, as most of that stuff is deteriorating very fastly, and I am afraid we are going to lose quite a bit of these goods. This also applies particularly to the great amount of overstock drawers, undershirts, pants, etc., which are big enough to fit elephants. As you remember, these same sizes were duplicated each boat, and no attention was ever given to whether they were sold or not. Consequently we have such an abundance on hand, and as you know, this stuff does not keep any too well here nor for a very long time. I am sure that we could fit up quite a large amount of the New York police force with some of our oversized stuff. I am giving this some of my attention also and go over these things every day with Angus, with a view of gradually getting our stock down to normal. ¶ FARMS DEPARTMENT: The schooner Star is making regular trips to Prinzapolca with bits for the farms, and I am glad to say that we do not experience any trouble at all in getting these bits as far as Auyapini; of course from there it has been a hard proposition getting them up to the farms, on account of the high floods. Mr. Lehmann tells me that the flood this year has been two or three feet higher than he has ever seen, and that it has been a hard proposition for the batteaux going up these rapids. Last week Mr. Innes and Mr. Richard came mighty near losing their lives in one of those batteaux; it seems that they went up the Tungla river with some sheets of zinc to put against the bits that had been delivered on the Tungla river banks, to prevent them from being washed away; and while going up the river the rapids upset their batteau with overboard motor, and they barely escaped with their lives, having to hang on limbs of tress until Indians could get them out. They were both dressed in slickers, boots, etc., which made it very hard for them to try to swim. ¶ We have plenty of labor at the farms, and Mr. Innes has requested that we do not send any more unless they would require them, as he has . . . "

7.    8 July 1925.
Progress Report from R. Mahahan, Auditor, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, Inc., to John Miceli, Manager Foreign Divisions, Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co., New Orleans LA, p. 7.
 " . . . no place to put them, and has an abundance of labor on hand. ¶ You will notice on the report of banana farms operation that I am inclosing in another letter the exact status of the six farms we have started working. On the seventh, the Sula farm, hardly anything has been done so far. ¶ RAILROAD OPERATION: The operation of trains every day has gotten to be pretty well systematized, especially our Sunday run up to the Boom with the commissary car. We have not as yet missed the Sunday schedule, and it is only very seldom that we miss our daily schedule. We are trying by the hardest to be able to bring the fruit from the Boom by the railroad for this trip of the Wawa, and from what Mr. Beer tells me, we are going to have at least 1,500 stems. It will certainly be fine if we can get this fruit over the railroad, as we lost about 500 beautiful stems on the last trip when the North Star tried to get over the bar towing that small barge, and I do not think that she could do it this time, as we have been having very bad weather, and there does not seem to be any let-up. So we are strongly banking on getting our first shipment of fruit over the railroad next Monday. If we are successful and the weather permits, I want to get a couple of pictures of this, so that in years to come we can compare it with other pictures that we might have five years from now. ¶ NORTH STAR AND MADELINA: The North Star is the only boat that we are using at present for handling our merchandise from here to Anyapini. The Madelina has been taken out at the Wawa bar, and is being overhauled. I have not ascertained from Don Pedro the exact extent of her damage, but I believe that she is undergoing thorough and general repairs. We are going to take the engine here at the stop and work it over and try to get it in first-class condition. Now, after we get this boat in first-class condition, and we have no other use for her, I think that it could be sold to either Mr. Lehmann or the captain of the Anderson. Mr. Lehmann told me the other day that he would purchase a boat in Bluefields, and I told him that it might be possible that we would sell him the Madelina. Therefore, he requested that I ascertained what the company wanted for the boat, and if he thought he would be justified in paying that price, he would be glad to buy it from us. This matter, I presume, you can take up upon your return here. ¶ I have endeavored to give you as much information on various matters that I thought you would be interested in as I possibly could, and as you will be here in the next few days, as I hope, you willbe able to go over these for yourself. ¶ With kindest personal regards, I am, ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ Accounting Department. ¶ Auditor."

9 September 1925.
Telegram from US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"Department's 92, September 8, 4 P.M. American lives cannot be said to be in imminent danger though American missionaries in Granada continue to be persecuted and several British subjects are reported to have been killed on American property in the Bluefields district where serious strikes continue to hamper operations. ¶ I am still of the opinion that if the President retains his health, serious revolutionary uprising is not imminent, more particularly since the surrender of the Managua garrison today for President Solorzano by General Rivas. But President Solorzano needs support. ¶ His own lack of confidence in his government is reflected in a general feeling of unrest which is provoking innumerable depredations and he plainly fears a condition in Nicaragua similar to that which recently existed in Honduras, which, rather than attempt to remedy after it . . . "

9 September 1925.
Telegram from US Minister C. Eberhardt, Managua, to Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 2.   
 " . . . has arrived, he feels can be prevented by the precautionary measure of timely visits of American was vessels. He feels also that this substantial display of American interest in and determination to support the constitutional government even after the marines have been withdrawn should be of invaluable assistance to him. Major Carter, many Nicaraguans, the American colony, as well as myself support the President in this belief. ¶ Eberhardt"

1926.
Map of Puerto Cabezas, by Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, a subsidiary of Standard Fruit Company, New Orleans, LA.

1 February 1926.
General Information Sheet, Bluefields Consular District, US Consulate, Bluefields, Nicaragua (revised Feb. 1926).   
 "Area, Topography, Climate. ¶ The district comprises the eastern half of Nicaragua, including the Departments of Cabo Gracias a Dios, Bluefields, Prinzapolca, Rio Grande, Siquia, and eastern sections of Jinotega and Chontales. Its area is approximately 25,000 square miles. ¶ The surface of the land is low and level on the coast, but undulating in the interior, attaining an altitude of 2,500 feet or more. Navigable rivers enrich the soil with alluvial deposits during the flood seasons as they flow towards the Caribbean Sea. Tropical vegetation and forests of pine and hard woods abound. ¶ The climate is tropical, the temperature varying from 60 to 90 degrees, Fahrenheit. The rainy season extends from June to January; the dry, from February to May; but on the coast it rains almost daily, the annual rainfall being about 200 inches. ¶ Population, Race, Language, Standards of Living.  ¶ The population, according to the latest census (1920), was 44,000, classified as follows: White people, 13 per cent., black, 15 per cent., copper-colored (Miskito), 21 per cent., and mixed (Spanish-Indian), 51 per cent. Spanish is the prevailing language, but Miskito is spoken by the Indians, and English is common on the coast. The majority of the people live very primitively, their purchasing power being limited. ¶ The principal towns and their population, are: Bluefields, 7,226; Prinzapolca, 800; Cabo Gracias a Dios, 500; Pearl Lagoon, 900; San Juan del Norte (Greytown), 400; Rama, 900; and Puerto Cabezas, 500. ¶ Leading Occupations and Industries. ¶ Banana cultivation and mahogany cutting constitute the chief sources of wealth. The banana sections are on the Escondido River and the Rio Grande. Large banana interests are being developed on the Wawa River. Mahogany is obtained in the interior along the banks of the various rivers. ¶ The pine lumber industry at Puerto Cabezas is becoming more important each year. At Bluefields are small docks for repairing coastal vessels, a tannery, an electric light plant, ice factories, and a small shoe factory. Otherwise there are but few industrial enterprises. The agricultural possibilities are great, but not exploited. Staple food products, such as, corn, rice, beans and sugar are imported to meet local demands. ¶ Leading Imports and Exports.  ¶ Fully 85 per cent of the imports are supplied by the United States, consisting mainly of food products, staple cotton goods, machinery for saw mills, mines, and two private railways, paints, varnishes, general hardware and cutlery, drugs, chemicals, shoes, and paper products. In 1924, the imports were valued at $2,698,833. ¶ Bananas and mahogany are the principal exports, the value of each averaging $1,500,000 annually. Other exports are cedar, gold bullion, coconuts, and rubber. In 1924, the exports, practically all to the United States, were valued at $3,296,931. In 1925, the exports to the United States were values at $3,801,122, consisting of the following: Mahogany, 19,801,609 board feet, $1,566,586; cedar. 4,845,719 board feet, $320,914; bananas, 2,558,805 bunches, $1,565,260; gold (bullion and dust), 21,787 ounces, $186,378; coconuts, 737,345 (number), $20,537; rubber, 34,264 pounds, $14,912; and miscellaneous, $123,535. ¶ Trade Conditions: Terms of Credit. ¶ Foreigners, mostly Americans, control the wholesale trade; Chinese, the retail trade, especially groceries and general merchants. The attitude of importers is favorable to American goods, preference being given with due consideration for price and quality. Commercial travelers are subject to a tax of $15, but the law is seldom enforced. Samples are admitted free of duty under bond providing for their exportations. ¶ The usual terms of credit are from 30 to 90 days against acceptances, according to the class of goods. Credit information may be obtained from commercial agencies or American banks specializing in Nicaraguan trade. Banco Nacional de Nicaragua maintains a branch in Bluefields, the only banking institution in eastern Nicaragua. ¶ Character of Packing Desirable.  ¶ All imports should be packed securely to withstand rough handling, and with due reference to customs classification in order to avoid the payment of heavy duties on containers. ¶ General Customs Policy and Regulations  ¶ American officials, under Treaty arrangement, are in charge of the customs administration of Nicaragua. Duties are based largely on weight, gross and net. Exporters should exercise care in complying with instructions furnished by Nicaraguan importers. Bluefields is the principal port of eastern Nicaragua, the point of distribution for most of the imports. Other ports of entry are Cabo Gracias a Dios, Puerto Cabezas, and San Juan del Norte. ¶ Copies of the Tariff of Nicaragua in English may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., at a cost of ten cents. Information regarding the preparation of consular invoices may be secured from Nicaraguan Consuls in the United States. ¶ Transportation Conditions and Connections. ¶ Two steamship companies operate ships between New Orleans and Bluefields; and one between New Orleans and Puerto Cabezas. The Cuyamel Fruit Company maintains a weekly service, calling at Cienfuego on its southbound trip; the Orr Fruit and Steamship Company, a 15-day service, calling at Cienfuego and Jamaica when southbound. The Vacarro Brothers operate ships every 20 days from New Orleans to Puerto Cabezas. All mail and freight for eastern Nicaragua should be forwarded by way of New Orleans. ¶ There are no highways in the district, the only means of communication between points being by river boats or on mule back over trails. Coastal vessels ply up and down the coast connecting with river launches on the San Juan River for Lake Nicaragua. Then on Lake-streamers interior points may be reached. Coastal vessels also maintain irregular schedules between Colon and Bluefields. ¶ Postal Regulations and Rate.  ¶ The postal rates of the United States apply to mail matter from the United States to Nicaragua. On letters, or other first class mail to Nicaragua, the rate is two cents an ounce or fraction thereof. ¶ Waiver. ¶ No responsibility is assumed by this consulate for the business standing of firms submitted upon the request of American exporters. ¶ Communications should be addressed to: ¶ THE AMERICAN CONSUL, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Revised February, 1926."

2 May 1926.
Photograph of Liberal General Luis Beltrán Sandoval (postcard).

2 May 1926.
Postcard from Liberal General Luis Beltrán Sandoval.  
 "Rama 2 de Mayo 1926. 'Amo la Constitución por que ella es el fundamento de la República y el baluarte de las instituciones.' Luis Beltran Sandoval"

1.     6 May 1926.
Revolution; Capture of Bluefields, US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Sec. State Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"I have the honor to report that Bluefields was captured about 3 o'clock Sunday morning, May 2, 1926, by revolutionists or Liberals in the name of Sacasa. The attacking force, consisting of not more than 50 men, was led by Luis Beltran Sandoval and Eliseo Duarte. Only two men were killed: a member of the attacking force; and a defender of the cuartel. The shots fired were sufficient to decimate a regiment. ¶ The Chamorro Government maintained its principal forces about 200 men, El Bluff. And naturally, since they were trained soldiers it was expected that they would attempt to recover Bluefields. ¶ At 8 A.M. on Sunday morning General Anselmo Sequeira with about 20 men attempted to land at Bluefields, but his little launch was compelled to retire owing to the marksmanship of the revolutionists. It was learned afterwards that the General and his first officer were killed, and three of his men seriously wounded. ¶ At 11 o'clock on the same morning, another officer with a greater number of men in a larger launch attempted to land in ¶ Bluefields . . . "

2.     6 May 1926.
Revolution; Capture of Bluefields, US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Sec. State Washington D.C., p. 2.   
" . . . Bluefields. The revolutionists captured the launch, killed two of the men, wounded four, and took 20 of them as prisoners. ¶ Till Tuesday afternoon, conditions were very unsatisfactory. There was no orderly administration of affairs, no proper police protection. I advised all store-owners to close their shops, and to keep them closed till a war vessel arrived. ¶ There was no relief to the panic-stricken till it became known that a war vessel was on the way, for they feared another attack from the government forces at El Bluff. And they were justified in their fear, for the firing upon the town was indiscriminate, the great surprise being that only one innocent outsider, a woman, was wounded. No one was killed. ¶ But late Tuesday afternoon a message was received to the effect that the government forces at El Bluff had evacuated. Then there was much relief, for all realized that there could be no attack upon the town till government troops from the interior arrived. And by that time, they hoped a war vessel would be here to prevent street fighting. ¶ The government forces at El Bluff commandeered four of the small coastal vessels in port, and were at sea several hours on their way to San Juan del Norte before the news reached Bluefields. ¶ The towns now in the hands of the revolutionists, or as they call themselves, Liberals upholding Sacasa, are: Bluefields, Rama, Rio Grande, El Bluff, La Cruz, and Puerto Cabezas; captured in the order named. Thus the revolutionists have under their control two of the larger parts of eastern Nicaragua. ¶ On Sunday night, the revolutionists forcibly entered Banco Nacional and took from one of the safes by means of an acetylene ¶ torch . . . "

3.     6 May 1926.
Revolution; Capture of Bluefields, US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to Sec. State Washington D.C., p. 3.   
" . . . torch $208,140.00. They at first demanded of Mr. Guillermo Pena, the manager, all of the government funds; but he evaded them, after having given his promise that he would pay them certain amounts, and sought safety at the consulate. Not beign able to obtain the funds through demands, they resorted to violence. ¶ Mr. Pena informed me that the funds were government funds, but that the bank was incorporated under the laws of Connecticut. I told him that I could not protest against their demand for the government funds, for they contended that they represented the real government of Nicaragua, and wanted only the government funds. But he refused to give them anything, and as they could not reach him to force him to open the safe, they used a torch to break into the safe. ¶ The next day, Monday, after a conference with the leaders of the revolution, the sum of $46,497.94 was returned to complete $119,357.15, the total amount of the deposits in the bank. The revolutionists therefore obtained $161,642.06 from the bank. ¶ The U.S.S. CLEVELAND arrived this morning; and the captain after a short interview decided to send 150 marines to Bluefields. They will be quartered on the premises of the Moravian Mission, American owned property. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant  ¶  /s/  A. J. McConnico"

13 May 1926.
"The Revolution," Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"I have the honor to report that there have been no important developments in the situation at Bluefields since forwarding my despatch No. 139 of May 6, 1926. ¶ As stated in that despatch, the U.S.S. CLEVELAND arrived on the morning of the sixth instant. Captain John D. Wainwright, accompanied by some of his officers, called at the consulate, and after canvassing the situation, decided that the only measure to pursue in order to accord protection to American lives and property was to declare Bluefields a neutral zone. ¶ During that afternoon, Mr. Fernando Larios, Jefe Politico and Commandante de Armas, called at the consulate and assured me that as one of the leaders on the Constitutionalists fighting for the restoration of power, he was glad that the American warship had arrived and had offered protection; and that he would be glad to co-operate with the Captain. ¶ On the following day, the seventh instant, the Jefe Politico and General Luis Beltran Sandoval called at the consulate and agreed the Bluefields should be declared a neutral zone, and that they would withdraw all their forces and arms by Tuesday noon (the 11th instant). ¶ Since that day Bluefields has been patrolled by marines and sailors under the command of Lieutenant Commander Spencer S. ¶ Lewis . . . "

13 May 1926.
"The Revolution," Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 2.  
 " . . . Lewis, and all but the turbulently inclined have been pleased with the orderly administration of affairs. ¶ The Liberals now have under their control all the ports and coastal towns except San Juan del Norte (Greytown) and all the important river towns as far west as Rama on the Bluefields and La Cruz on the Rio Grande. ¶ On the 11th instant, the advance guard of the Liberals encountered a scouting party of Chamorro forces at Muelle de los Bueyes, on the Mico River about 20 miles west of Rama; and, according to an official report, repulsed them, killing nine and capturing nine with 20 rifles and 1,500 rounds of ammunition. ¶ Controlling as they do all the ports of eastern Nicaragua but San Juan del Norte, the Liberals are now arranging to take possession of the customs. Mr. W. J. Crampton, an American, Collector of Customs at El Buff, the port of Bluefields and the principal port for the introduction of foreign merchandise and goods, refuses to recognize them or to pay any attention to their demands, saying that he will act only upon instructions from Managua. ¶ At a conference yesterday afternoon held at my office, Commander Lewis informed Mr. Crampton that he could not offer protection except to Americans or American interests at El Buff, and that any demands of those now in authority would be interfered with so long as they did not affect American interests. It is not likely therefore, unless the naval forces sustained Mr. Crampton, that he will be able to remain in control of the Customs. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ A. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul. ¶ No. 800."

25 May 1926.
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"I have the honor to report that the Liberals who gained military control of eastern Nicaragua within a few days after the revolutionary outbreak on May 2, 1926, became demoralized, on Sunday, May 23, and their troops dispersed in all directions. ¶ The leaders effected their escape by means of coastal vessels bound according to reports, to ports of Costa Rica and Panama; but the rank and file were left to shift for themselves and most of them sought safety in the forests. In their hasty departure, the leaders did not neglect to take them with the unexpended sum extracted from Banco Nacional. It is reported that they had about $80,000, a sum quite sufficient to maintain them while on vacations in foreign lands. ¶ On Friday, the 21st instant, at Rama, the Liberal troops sustained their first defeat. They were completely overwhelmed by the firing of the machine guns of the government forces and hastily retreated to El Bluff. Their leaders asserted that they could withstand any kind of an attack at this point, and began making all kinds of preparations. ¶ Captain . . . "

25 May 1926.
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 2.   
" . . . Captain Wainwright of the U.S.S. CLEVELAND withdrew from the customhouse wharf on Saturday, the 22nd, the marines stationed there in order to permit free action to the contending forces; but when the marines departed, some of the Liberal soldiers became demoralized (as though they were depending upon the marines for protection), and the demoralization soon permeated the entire army. As a consequence the leaders decamped and the army dispersed 24 hours before the government troops arrived at El Bluff. ¶ General Jose Solorzano Diaz arrived at El Bluff last night (Monday) with 250 men and assumed military control; and today his brother, Ernesto Solorzano Diaz, who was held as a prisoner by the Liberals while in control, resumed his duties as Jefe Politico of the Department of Bluefields. ¶ Generals Benjamin Vargas and Bartolome Viquez are stationed at Rama with 1,200 soldiers, and expect to arrive at El Bluff within a week or so. The recovery of the various coastal ports, Cabo Gracias a Dios, Puerto Cabezas, Rio Grande Bar, Prinzapulca, and the river towns El Gallo and La Cruz will not be difficult, for the few Liberal soldiers at those points will retire to the forests as soon as they learn that their leaders have deserted them. ¶ The revolution is therefore practically at an end. ¶ Captain Wainwright in a conference this morning notified me that he would continue in charge of the neutral zone at Bluefields till June 1, 1926. It is his opinion that conditions will be normal on that date, warranting his retirement. ¶ I have the honor to be, Sir, ¶ Your obedient servant, ¶ /s/ A. J. McConnico, American Consul."

29 May 1926.
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 1.   
"American citizens here are unanimous in requesting that naval forces be retained in control of Bluefields for the protection of their lives and property as well as those non-combatants till conditions become normal. They fear reprisals of reconstruction by the government troops as much as the evils incident to warfare knowing from experience that their lives and property will not be respected without the restraining influence of the naval forces. Intense factional bitterness prevails, declarations of reprisals are general, including threats against several American citizens. In my opinion the withdrawal of the naval forces at this time will result in loss of life and the destruction of property."

23 June 1926.
Letter from unknown (34 yr resident on the Coast) to Mr. William L. McKee, Treasurer, A. W. Tedcastle Company, Boston MA, p. 1.  
 "Dear Sir: ¶ Your letter of the 11th inst. was received by last mail, and was read with great pleasure, and we thank you for what you did. We have no doubt but that it had some effect, as we still have a U.S.S. with us. The U. S. S. Cleveland left last Sunday, (20th) but her place was taken by the U.S.S. “Tulsa”. How long she is going to stay we cannot say, as the Captain has only come ashore this noon, and we do not know what his orders are. ¶ We do not except any peace on this coast however until the U. S. Government takes some interest in the situation here and compels the Nicaragua to comply with the Treaty made with England, the United States and Nicaragua back in about 1894. The Nicaragua Government has not lived up to the Treaty by any means. These people have made several petitions to the U.S. Government asking that they get justice, but so far nothing has been done, and this coast had been bled to death. ¶ The facts regarding this situation are as following: ¶ Up to about 1894 this “Mosquito Reserve”, which compromises the whole of the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua, was a Protectorate of England. At that time the Nicaraguans came and took it over. Of course this created considerable trouble and brought an English Man-of-War here, and later an American Man-of-War. However the matter was settled by England withdrawing and turning her Protectorate over to the United States, and an agreement made between the three interested parties. This agreement was quite a lengthy one. The Nicaragua Government however has not lived up to it in any way, the only thing she has done has been to tax them as much as possible. In fact the situation has become unbearable to the Natives here, and unless something is done by the United States to get them some kind of justice there will be plenty of trouble, and they, the Natives, will be willing tools of either party to start Revolutions. . . . "

23 June 1926.
Letter from unknown (34 yr resident on the Coast) to Mr. William L. McKee, Treasurer, A. W. Tedcastle Company, Boston MA, p. 2.  
 " . . . ¶ This coast is wonderfully rich in natural possibilities. But all kinds of enterprises (Foreign) have been taxed and bled by graft to such an extent that business is about at a standstill. ¶ If it is possible for you to bring some pressure to bear to get the United States Government to investigate the situation and take some steps in the matter, it would bring in a fine territory for business to them. ¶ We thank you again for the interest you have already taken, and as we say, above, we have no doubt but that it has had good effects. ¶ The writer has lived here for over 34 years, which accounts for the interests he takes in the matter. When he came here in 1892 it was the Mosquito Reserve and very much English. ¶ Business continues very dull, as most of laborers have taken to the bush and will not return until everything is settled, as they were all more or less implicated in the last revolution. Collections are simply rotten as a consequence. ¶ Very truly yours, . . ."

23 August 1926.
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C.  
 "A war ship is urgently needed to protect life and property of American citizens. Conditions growing worse, Rio Grande in the hands of liberals. An attack on Bluff and Bluefields expected every moment. People of Bluefields are very apprehensive. The following is from the Chinese at Bluefields to the Chinese Minister at Washington: “Please use your best efforts with the American Government to obtain protection of life and property of our colony during the present revolutionary movement and wire results through the American Consul at Bluefields."

30 August 1926.
Memorandum by REC, Division of Latin-American Affairs, Dept. of State, re conversation with Mr. Fred W. Salmen, Vice President of Bragmans Bluff Lumber Co.   
"Mr. Fred W. Salmen, Vice President of Bragmans Bluff Lumber Company, of New Orleans, Louisiana, telephoned this morning at 11:45 o’clock with regard to their telegrams of August 29 to the Department in which they gave information from their people at Bragmans, Nicaragua, who requested a gun boat to proceed to Bragmans to protect the American residents there. Mr. Salmen inquired what action was being taken in the premises. Mr. Cox told Mr. Salmen that the Navy Department had informed this Department that the U.S.S ROCHESTER will arrived at Bragmans Bluff on August 31. ¶ Mr. Salmen inquired what other news the Department had received from Nicaragua. Mr. Cox informed him that the Navy Department had received a radio from Bluefields to the effect that all was quiet there at this time. Mr. Salmen said that they had received a message from their people at Bragmans to the effect that all was quiet there. ¶ In view of the conversation no telegram has been sent by the Department to the company in reply to their telegrams of August 29."

31 August 1926. (3:00 PM)
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C.  
 "Losses to Americans on the rivers will amount to two million dollars unless conflict stopped soon. If the five mahogany companies cannot get protection on all the rivers their losses will be one and one-half millions. Contending factions take their boats, recruit their men rendering them helpless, logs float out to sea. The two banana companies are also handicapped, their boats being taken and their laborers being recruited or frightened away."

31 August 1926. (4:00 PM)
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C.   
"To Astoria Importing and Manufacturing Company, Long Island City, New York. "Under the present circumstances United States protection needed along the whole coast Nicaragua mahogany companys".

1.     4 September 1926.
Information regarding Mr. Leon Frank of Bluefields, Nicaragua, from Lt. Homer F. McGee, USN, to Commanding Officer, Landing Forces, p. 1.   
 [NOTE:  Description of Leon Frank from the 1932 US Electoral Commission character sketches of prominent individuals:  "FRANK, Leon. Liberal; Bluefields. Jew. Height 5'9", weight 165 lbs., dark hair and eyes, ruddy face, stocky physique. Character, unfavorable. Manager and part owner of the Bluefields Tanning Company of Carlos Pasos & Company. Is married to a native Creole and associates with the colored race. Has many personal enemies. Has assisted the Liberal Party with contributions of money, provisions, and transportation, and done everything to block the Conservatives. Does not cooperate with the American officials. Is underhanded and bears watching."  (Sec. Navy Gen. Corresp., 1925-1940, EF-49, Box 2010.)]

"1. Inasmuch as there has been so much trouble with Mr. Leon Frank in safe guarding his property, it was decided to obtain information as to what extent he was involved in the revolution. It seems that he has thrown every obstacle in the way of the government now in power and from this it would seem that he has motives other than a peaceful American citizen, as he claims to be. ¶ 2. With the above in mind, I called on Mr. Leon Frank with the express purpose of gaining his confidence and obtaining any information which would be of benefit to the American forces. Fortunately his boat, the "Vencedor" had suddenly disappeared without permit and upon being called before the Commander, he denied having any knowledge of where it went or how and the Commander used some very direct words which put Mr. Frank in a mood for a sympathetic listener. I called on him immediately after his interview with the Commander, after telling him how he had been mistreated and how I sympathized with him, it was not long before he took me into his confidence and at this time confided to me that he was absolutely against the Chamorrist government ¶ and . . . "

2.     14 September 1926.
Information regarding Mr. Leon Frank of Bluefields, Nicaragua, from Lt. Homer F. McGee, USN, to Commanding Officer, Landing Forces, p. 2.   
". . . and that he had done everything in his power to prevent them from using provisions and material against the Rebel party, that he had purposely removed the timing gear and made the “Fernandina” inoperative, and that when questioned by the Commander, that he lied and told him that the parts had been removed unknown to him, and again later that they had been removed to be repaired. He further stated to me that he himself, the American and English consuls. Mr. McConnico and Mr. Rees had collections taken to buy food, tobacco and other necessities for the Rebel soldiers and sent them by boat each night; also that he was in direct communication with the rebels and kept them informed of the movements of the Conservatives. About this time the English consul, Mr. Rees entered and being informed of my good intentions corroborated all that Mr. Frank had said. Upon being asked how the “Vencedor” got away from her mooring, he told me that he had nothing directly to do with it except that he conveniently turned his back while she was taken and told me that the rebel forces had her at Schooner Cay and were using her for troops and provisions. Shortly after this, the English consul seemed to realize that too much had been said and warned Mr. Frank that it might not be too good for him. ¶ I then returned to Headquarters and reported and received orders to go and get the “Vencedor”. I took one squad of men and proceeded to Schooner Cay, but en route saw the boat anchored off the Bluff and proceeded to that point; there was no objection to turning over the boat to me and I took the six Liberal soldiers that I found aboard back to Schooner Cay, where I explained to ¶ General . . ."

3.     14 September 1926.
Information regarding Mr. Leon Frank of Bluefields, Nicaragua, from Lt. Homer F. McGee, USN, to Commanding Officer, Landing Forces, p. 2.   
" . . . General Hudson [Hodgson], in charge of the Liberal forces at Schooner Cay, the reason for taking the boat; at this time a Mr. Hooker of Hooker Bro. Lumber Co. in Bluefields, also of the Liberal forces, stepped up and informed me that he was General Hooker and stated that Mr. Frank knew of the whole arrangement and was satisfied for them to keep the boat; upon being questioned as to how they obtained the boat, he said, “Of course, Mr. Frank could not just turn the boat over to them but it was arranged that he would turn his back while it was taken;” he also stated that the boat was owned jointly by Mr. Frank and one Donnelly, who at this time is fighting with the Rebel forces."

14 September 1926.
Letter from Leon Frank, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields.  
 "Dear Sir: ¶ I understand that my launch VENCEDOR was stolen from her mooring sometime yesterday evening or during the night. Reports are that this boat was stolen by fleeing supporters of the Chamorro government. I respectfully request that you place this on record so that once the Political disturbance in this country has been settled proper claim for damages may be made against the Nicaraguan government. ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ /s/ Leon Frank."

14 September 1926.
Letter from J. Oliver Thomas, Schooner, Cay Station, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields (photocopy of envelope, part of Anna Crowdell Papers).  
 [NOTE: In the words of historian David C. Brooks, Mrs. Anna Crowdell was a "prominent Bluefields Creole who had sympathized with the Conservatives in the past, but by 1926 had swung over to the Liberals' side. Crowdell was the daughter of an [Austrian] sea captain and a Creole woman from Bluefields. By the time of the intervention [in early 1927], she was in her fifties and had achieved a kind of informal position, as Charles Hale has put it, as the grande dame of Bluefields' Creole society [Hale, Resistance and Contradiction, p. 84, fn. 59]. Part of her influence derived from her connection with the British. She owned the main hotel in Bluefields where the towns British Consul, Owen Rees, made his residence. Crowdell cultivated a very close personal and political relationship with Rees. In addition, Mrs. Crowdell used her hotel for civic purposes, sponsoring social and cultural evenings for members of Bluefields' Creole community. Using her business as a base, Mrs. Crowdell became an active player in local politics. Though she enjoyed an elite status within Bluefields society, she also maintained strong contacts with the local Miskito Indian communities. As one Marine report put it, she was "a leading figure among the Indians on the Coast and knows most of them personally." Brooks, "Revolution from Without," pp. 275-76.]

[The letter is transcribed in full immediately below.]

14 September 1926.
Letter from J. Oliver Thomas, Schooner, Cay Station, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields (transcription of original, part of Anna Crowdell Papers).    
[NOTE: This is a State Dept transcription of J. Oliver Thomas's letter.]    "Dear Mrs. C. ¶ We took charge of Half-way Cay at 5 am. Fired a few shots at the Cay, but garrison of Cham. [Chamorro] had already left. Will also occupy Deer Cay today – completing circle of five – cutting off food supplies. “Dictator” was captured yesterday with Aeroplane bombs, & etc. – shipped by the great Mr. Baker the great friend of the “Coast”.  We have 2 Mahogany ships at our orders – Quite a large fleet. Don’t worry about Aeroplanes. We are taking the Bluff in an easier way, and with less shedding of blood. We do not wish any of our boys to be killed if possible. Otherwise we could blow down the whole place. But we do not wish to destroy property either, as many of the people are not responsible. ¶ The “tunnel” boat which was bringing the Captain and Engineer and a sailor from Half-way Cay was shot at by a boat which came out from Bluefields with armed men. Newton Escalona was shot through the hip. His wound may prove serious. ¶ My trip to Puerto Cabezas and back to Bluefields has been, or will prove quite an adventure. ¶ I know you are anxious; and all hands with you – But so are we – all must make a sacrifice, and it will be the supreme sacrifice for many. ¶ Regards to Margaret – and say what is that (little) “Mesita” saying- ¶ The “Baranca” may come down soon with more ammunition & guns. We have plenty. Sacasa may come this way when Bluefields is taken. We may strike final blow tomorrow. ¶ Thanks for the many things that were sent us. They are highly appreciated by the boys. ¶ Regards to the Doctor & all with best wishes and with the hope & prayer that we may all soon meet & have a grand reunion. ¶ Yours truly ¶ /s/ THOMAS ¶ Regards to our dear old Friend Mr. Reece ¶ We need some adhesive plaster should we have any wounded and also about 100 empty Capsules for Quinine and about ½ oz of aromatic sulfuric acid for our hospital."

14 September 1926.
Letter from J. Oliver Thomas, Schooner, Cay Station, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields  (p. 1 of photocopy of original; remaining pages of original missing, part of Anna Crowdell Papers).

[transcribed in full immediately above]

1.     15 September 1926.
Report on Disappearance of the power boat VENCEDOR owned by Mr. Leon Frank on 13 Sept. 1926, from W. N. Richardson, Jr., Commanding Officer, Bluefields, to Commanding Officer, USS Galveston, Bluefields, p. 1.  
 "1. On the morning of 13 September 1926, Mr. Leon Frank called on the Force Commander and stated that he desired to place his power schooner, the SANTA RITA on his ways at Handsacks point, for the purpose of making certain repairs, the SANTA RITA being under British registry. The Force Commander ordered that a guard be place on the SANTA RITA to accompany it to Handsacks point and remain on board until the SANTA RITA was hauled up on ways, after which boat was to be left there, the patrol of #9 post looking out for her. Unknown to the Force Commander, the power boat VINCEDOR was used by Mr. Frank to tow the SANTA RITA to Handsack point, but guard on SANTA RITA (McCaffery, W., Sea. Lc USN) remained on SANTA RITA until same was hauled up on ways. The VINCEDOR then anchored close to ways. The VINCEDOR had no authority to move from Mr. Frank’s dock at Handsack’s Point. The patrol on #9 post, on the 12 to 4 p.m. watch, (Pentzien, E.M., sealc USN), reported he saw the boat anchored close to the ways at Handsacks Point about 3.30p.m. A short while afterwards Pentzien was relieved by Swaney, W.P. sealc, USN, who on his first tour of the Point failed to find the VINCEDOR anchored, but as the boat’s presence had not been reported to him he failed to make any report of its absence. About 8p.m., the Force Commander heard rumors that the VINCEDOR had been captured by Liberals up the Escondido River. A thorough search of the docks was immediately made and boat in question could not be located. The Force Commander then forwarded to Mr. Frank a written memorandum requesting Mr. Frank to inform him of the whereabouts of his gasoline boat, the VINCEDOR. Mr. Frank replied that if the boat was not at his dock or at his ways, he did not know of its whereabouts. About 8.30 a.m., 14 September 1926, the Force Commander sent for Mr. Frank and questioned him regarding the VINCEDOR as follows: ¶ Force Comdr. - Mr. Frank, what have you to say about the absence of the VINCEDOR? ¶ Mr. Frank - I have nothing to say, Commander, I have protested to the American Consul. ¶ Q. Have you any control over your boats? ¶ A. Yes, during the day, but I cannot tell what they are doing during the night. ¶ Q. Why do you leave her at Handsacks Point? ¶ A. I did not know she was left there. . . . "

2.     15 September 1926.
Report on Disappearance of the power boat VENCEDOR owned by Mr. Leon Frank on 13 Sept. 1926, from W. N. Richardson, Jr., Commanding Officer, Bluefields, to Commanding Officer, USS Galveston, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . ¶ Q. You say you did not know the crew did not bring her back? ¶ A. No, sir. I did not know the crew did not bring the boat back to the dock. The first I heard of it was when I received your note last night. ¶ Q. You knew the boat left the dock and you did not have permission to move her? ¶ A. Yes, but I had to tow the SANTA RITA to the ways. ¶ Q. Why did the crew not bring her back? ¶ A. I did not know. ¶ Q. Where is the crew now? ¶ A. Right here in town. I heard a report in town last night that Chamorrists were running away in the boat and immediately made protect to the American Consul. ¶ Q. Could not the SANTA RITA proceed to the ways under her own power? ¶ A. No, she was out of commission. A coupling was loose. I tried to repair her at the dock but could not do so. ¶ Q. Still you come around here and complain about your boat being stolen by Chamorrista people? ¶ A. I did not complain, Commander. I simply made protest to the American Consul in case a change of government takes place. I wished to make this protest in order that I can prove my assertions in regard to my claim in case of a change of government does take place. ¶ Q. How is it that your crew is so hard to locate? ¶ A. I think you can find them around here right now, Commander. They are all in town. ¶ Q. As I understand you gave no orders to crew of VENCEDOR to remain at ways until SANTA RITA was finished and to tow her back to the docks? ¶ A. Yes, I have them orders to stay there. ¶ Q. Then you assumed that the VENCEDOR returned to your dock? ¶ A. Yes, sir. ¶ 2. The Commander Officer, Landing Force is convinced that Mr. Frank engineered the removal of the SANTA RITA in order to get the VENCEDOR to a position where it could be more easily taken possession of by Liberal sympathizers. There is no doubt in the mind of the Force Commander concerning the activities of Mr. Frank in the present revolution. He is undoubtedly one of the principal Liberal Agents at Bluefields. It is the opinion of the Force Commander that the activities . . . "

3.     15 September 1926.
Report on Disappearance of the power boat VENCEDOR owned by Mr. Leon Frank on 13 Sept. 1926, from W. N. Richardson, Jr., Commanding Officer, Bluefields, to Commanding Officer, USS Galveston, Bluefields, p. 3.  
 " . . . of Mr. Frank do more than anything else to endanger the lives and property of Americans and other foreigners in Bluefields. Numbers of reputable American citizens and other foreigners at Bluefields have informed the Force Commander that they know and have seen papers that would prove that Mr. Frank takes an active part in the Nicaraguan revolution on the side of the Liberal party. But each one of these informers have insisted that I do not bring their names out in connection with Mr. Frank and openly admitted that they are in fear of what he may do to them and their business in case the Liberal party comes in power. ¶ 3. Mr. Frank is either married to or living with a native woman and from all accounts is a very disreputable citizen. The Force Commander recommends that steps be taken to have cancelled the citizenship of Mr. Leon Frank. The Force Commander has heard and believes to be true that the only reason Mr. Frank has not been deported as an undesirable alien by the present government is that the Chamorro government does not desire to do anything that might prejudice their case with the United States Government. ¶ 4. As the VENCEDOR was taken without permission of the American Forces, while they were exercising police control of the city, the Force Commander decided to recover boat. To this end, about 9a.m. 14 September 1926, Lieutenant McGee with machine gun squad was sent out in #2 motor launch to Schooner Cay, where Force Commander had heard the VENCEDOR was moored. It was found that motor launch could not cross the bar to Schooner Cay and the force returned to Bluefields. Lieutenant McGee and his men were then placed in a flat bottom boat belonging to the Cuyamel Fruit Company and flying the American flag and sent out again to Schooner City, returning a short while afterwards with the VENCEDOR, which was moored to dock in rear of headquarters. Lieutenant McGee’s report on this subject, is attached hereto, together with letter of Mr. Leon Frank to American Consul, and the latter’s communication to the Force Commander in reference to the VENCEDOR. ¶ /s/ W.N. RICHARDSON JR."

20 September 1926. (2:00 PM)
Telegram from US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C.  
 "Representatives of the Mahogany Companies at Bluefields request that the following be repeated to their respective companies mentioned in the telegram of September 6, 7 P.M. ¶ “We have failed completely to obtain protection for shipment of logs now ready after repeated attempts and the situation is becoming more ruinous for our interests. Teredo endangering logs. Impossible to obtain labor to roll logs out water. Enormous losses sure unless relief obtained immediately."

5 October 1926.
Declaration of Stephen Milon, Bluefields, p. 1. 
  "I, STEPHEN MILON, an American citizen, a native of Pointe-a-la-Hache. Parish of Plaquemine, State of Louisiana, United States of America, 54 years of age, declare an oath: ¶ That I have been employed for a number of years by American banana companies at Rama, Nicaragua, my work being principally on boats and tugs belonging to the companies; ¶ That on May 20, 1926, when the Chamorro troops entered Rama and took possession after repulsing the Liberal forces, I was required and compelled by General Viquez, in command of the Chamorro troops, to take charge a boat belonging to the company for which I worked and convey his troops from Rama to Chalmette, a distance of twelve miles; ¶ That I complied with his command because I could not offer any resistance, for I had no means of defending myself while he, the General, and his officers had revolvers when they commanded me to captain the boat; however, I told him I was an American and did not wish to have anything to do with either of the contending factions; ¶ That as we approached Chalmette, the Liberal forces fired upon us, and I was wounded in my right leg and as a consequence was incapacitated for 40 days; and while wounded I was robbed by some of the soldiers of $52.00 which I had in my pocket. ¶ That my other loses incident to my illness amounted to $200.000. I therefore claim that the Nicaraguan Government owes me the sum of $252.00. ¶ (Signed) S. MILON. ¶ American Consulate ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua . . ."

5 October 1926.
Declaration of Stephen Milon, Bluefields, p. 2.
    "Articles of Stephen Milon, American, taken by Chamorro troops, on or about October 5, 1926, when his house was looted: ¶ 1 Folding Cot … $8.00 ¶ 1 Blanket … 5.00 ¶ 1 Pillow … .75 ¶ 1 Wash Tub … 2.00 ¶ 1 Wash Basin … 1.00 ¶ 1 Box Blacksmith’s Tools … 10.00 ¶ 1 New Broom … 1.50 ¶ 1 Water Bucket … .75 ¶ 1 Box Medicine … 5.00 ¶ 1 Table Lamp … 4.00 ¶ ½ Dozen Drinking Glasses … 1.20 ¶ 1 Water Pitcher … 4.00 ¶ 2 Butcher Knives …1.10 ¶ _______ ¶ $44.30 ¶ (Signed) STEPHEN MILON. ¶ American Consulate, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ I, A.J. McConnico, Consul of the United States of America at Bluefields, Nicaragua, do hereby certify that the foregoing claims amounting to $296.30 are true and correct copies of the originals filed at this Consulate on October 5, 1926; that on November 17, 1926, three copies were forwarded to the Department of State, Washington D.C.; and that on November 18, 1926, a copy was sent to the American Minister at Managua, Nicaragua. . . ."

7 October 1926.
Letter from Julia E. Thomas, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"Sir: ¶ We beg to place before you the following facts and request your kind assistance in placing same before the Admiral. ¶ Under date of September 20th, and with the consent of Commander Richardson of the U.S. Land Forces, we opened up at the Union Club of this city a Red Cross Hospital for the caring of wounded irrespective of party. This hospital is sustained by charitable donations. ¶ All wounded were placed on this Hospital by the consent of Commander Richardson, and we understood that after being able to leave the hospital that they would be returned to their forces. ¶ Some of these wounded are now in a condition to be returned, and on our requesting this morning that they be given safe conduct from Commander Richardson he stated to our Matron, Mrs. Julia Thomas, that he had never inferred that they be returned, further stating that he would send the WHOLE DAM BUNCH TO PRISON. And in the absence of the Matron or any of the representatives of the Hospital, he carried out his threat by turning over to the Civil Authorities seventeen of the wounded, many of whom are unfit for travel. Two of these seventeen now in jail entered the hospital during the term of the Armistice. He also stated that the Hospital was not a Red Cross Hospital but a “Liberal” one, but was reminded that wounded Conservatives had also been treated and cared for ¶ there. . . ."

7 October 1926.
Letter from Julia E. Thomas, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . there. He is also aware of the fact that Doctors J. L. Marchand and C. E. Nelson, both Americans, are in charge. ¶ The Commander’s action in having these wounded taken to prison where they will not be fed or cared for and his uncouth reply to the Matron shows his prejudice against the people of this Coast. He should therefore, be removed and a Commander placed here who will treat the people civilly. We hereby solemnly protest against the action of Commander Richardson and request that justice be done. ¶ Respectfully, ¶ (Signed) Julia E. Thomas, Matron; ¶ Assistants: Gertrudis Zamora, Leonor Mena Solorzano, Emelina Rangel, Rosibel Barrantes, Berta Rodriguez, Juanita James, Matilde Sandoval."

8 October 1926.
Letter of protest from Dr. J. M. Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.   
[NOTE: Description of Dr. Marchand from the 1932 US Electoral Commission character sketches of prominent individuals:  "Dr. J. M. Marchand: Liberal; Bluefields. American citizen. White, height 5'6", weight 165 lbs, grey hair, blue eyes, clean shaven. Slender red face. Physician. Character, fair. Very good doctor. Drinks to excess and was discharged by the La Luz and Los Angeles Mining Company and the Cuyamel Fruit Co. as the result of his heavy drinking. Was born in New Orleans, speaks French, Spanish and English. Has a disagreeable nature and is unscrupulous. Rendered much service to the sick and wounded in the Liberal Army during the late revolution. Is anti-American. Graduate of the Medical College of the University of Pennsylvania."  (Sec. Navy Gen. Corresp., 1925-1940, EF-49, Box 2010).]

"Dear Sir: ¶ I wish to protest strongly against the attitude of Commander Richardson of the U.S. Land Forces towards me as a professional man, in part charge of the Red Cross Hospital where both constitutional wounded and sick soldiers and those of the Chamorro party have received equally careful attention. ¶ My purpose in visiting Commander Richardson on Thursday, October 7th, was to learn the true status of convalescent wounded and sick patients, mostly soldiers of the constitutional troops, a few so called prisoners of war and some sick patients recently turned into the street from the Charity Hospital by the de facto government authorities and taken into the Red Cross Hospital for care and attention. ¶ Upon giving it as my opinion that these convalescent if turned over to the de facto government authorities, as prisoners of war, would not receive the care and attention due them, but would be closely confined, not be given food to say nothing of medical care and attention I was accused of taking sides in the revolution, along with certain other Americans, and of dictating to the Commander how he should “run his business”, I was loudly and abusively ordered off the premises occupied by him as his office, yelled at and refused any of the information requested - in the presence of practically his whole command. ¶ His appearance and conduct were of a man under the influence of liquor, quite in contrast with his appearance and ¶ conduct . . ."

8 October 1926.
Letter of protest from Dr. J. M. Marchand, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.   
" . . . conduct during a former interview, when I could have equally justly been accused of taking aides. ¶ Upon a former occasion it had been my privilege to visit the local jail in charge of the Chamorro Officials, with, and at the request of, Dr. Crooks of the United States Forces, in order to ascertain if any efforts had been made to mitigate the deplorable sanitary conditions existing there, and to hospitalize the sick. ¶ Despite former promises made to Surgeon Crooks no such efforts had been made. Surgeon Crooks previously to this had reported the true state of the prison of Commander Richardson but the Commander’s report to the American Consul, who had requested the Surgeon’s visit, was directly opposite to the Surgeon’s report to him. ¶ These discrepancies can be verified by an examination of the filed letter bearing on the case. ¶ The patently partisan attitude of Commander Richardson upon the occasion of my second interview with him, with his distortion of facts, regarding the true state of the political prisoners as set forth in his letter to the American Consul, would seem to indicate, without any question of alcoholism catering into the case, that he is not the man for the responsible position he is now holding. ¶ Very truly yours, ¶ (Signed) JNO. J. MARCHAND, M. D."

11 October 1926.
Report by Stabler, USDS, Washington D.C., to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 1.
  
"Conversation. October 11, 1926. ¶ Mr. Frank G. Otis ¶ President, Otis Manufacturing Company ¶ Situation in Nicaragua ¶ Mr. Frank G. Otis called to see Mr. Stabler on the 11th and spoke about the mahogany situation on the east coast and desired to know, in the case the armistice came to an end, whether the Bluff would still be neutralized. Mr. Stabler replied that it was difficult to answer this question absolutely but that it was hoped that the armistice would continue and that there would be no resumption of hostilities; that the matter of extending the neutral zone would most certainly be discussed with the leaders by Admiral Latimer in the event that hostilities were broken. Mr. Otis apparently seemed to feel that the situation was very much better on the east coast and that the mahogany companies would be able to move their logs. His only apprehension seemed to be in regard to making contracts for next year. On this matter Mr. Stabler said that it was certainly such a hypothetical question that no one would be in a position to give him advice and that they themselves should be in closer touch with conditions than any one else having their men on the spot. He however said that he trusted that the conference to be held in Corinto would result in stabilizing conditions ¶ in . . . "

11 October 1926.
Report by Stabler, USDS, Washington D.C., to the Secretary of State, Washington D.C., p. 2.
   " . . . in Nicaragua so that there would be no more hostilities and that the various industries could proceed without fear of difficulty. ¶ Stabler"

17 October 1926.
Letter from J. Oliver Thomas, Rio Grande, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields (transcription, part of Anna Crowdell Papers).  
 "Mrs. A. ¶ Moncada arrived from “Rochester” last night. States that the whole coast will be neutral zone. M. is only a tool in the hands of the Yankees. They dictate terms to him so that American business may go on as usual. Here is the position. The American Government does not recognize the Chamorro Government yet permits the latter to have a Civil Government in Bluefields – which would deny the Creoles returning to their homes. It prates about Constitutional Government yet only half heartedly permits the latter government to exercise government over only a part of the coast from Pearl Lagoon northwards. We refuse absolutely to be pushed out and to be put aside attempting to force us to go out of the limits of the Coast (to the Interior) to fight other peoples battles. We should be permitted to return to our homes and the whole coast declared neutral to us for we have not taken up arms against any Constitutional Government. We ask you to protest to the British & American Consul (both). We joined in the fight for the protection of our homes & for the return of a Constitutional Government on the Coast, as we can only expect justice and ask it of a recognized & Constitutional Government. ¶ We are just as far from home as before if an unconstitutional government is permitted to be in Bluefields. Protest, it is the only weapon we have. Everything has been done without our advice, and we protest. We are Costeños & expect our rights form either Conservatives or Liberals or whoever may be ruling. ¶ We know very little of what is going on, but we know that they are expecting us to go on to the Interior, but there will be the trouble. We are determined not to budge from the Coast. The Coast is greater in need to our protection and assistance than is the Interior of our help & assistance. Bertrand Sandoval returned from Guatemala yesterday morning. You will hear from my wife. ¶ Expect to hear from you. Kindest regards. ¶ T."

25 October 1926.
Letter from Samuel Weil, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 1.   
"COPY ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua, October 25, 1926. ¶ Hon. A. J. McConnico, ¶ American Consul, ¶ Bluefields, Nicaragua. ¶ Dear Sir: ¶ On the 13th instant at about five o’clock in the afternoon in front of the Moravian Church, directly next to the Barracks, where the U.S.S GALVESTON’S landing forces are located, I passed Lieutenant McGee, S.H. Baker of the Baker Banana Company, and Arnoldo Calonje, a Nicaraguan, locked arms, drunk. Several times I have seen guards drunk, and led staggering to the barracks. On one occasion two were in that condition with their guns. The Officers are always at the Tropical Club barroom drinking. Many comments regarding this are being made by foreigners and natives, to the effect that the actions of the Naval Officers are a disgrace to the United States. ¶ On the 10th or 11th instant I addressed Commander Richardson relative to a dory (skiff) that had been stolen from my wharf, as I learned it was seen about a mile below the town in front of a plantation. Lieut. McGee came to see me, with the letter, saying Commander Richardson had sent him. He wanted to know why I did not send down to get it, and if its delivery was refused, they would take it up. I replied if it was a Nicaraguan who has stolen the Dory, we would probably abuse the native I could send, and a killing might occur. He doubted this, and I replied, “having lived here over thirty-nine years, I know the character of the people”. He said “They haven’t killed you yet.” I said “No, I have taken good care of myself”. He asked “What ¶ would you . . . "

25 October 1926.
Letter from Samuel Weil, Bluefields, to US Consul A. J. McConnico, Bluefields, p. 2.  
 " . . . would you do if we were not here”. “Go to the Director of Police” I answered. “Why don’t you go to him now” he replied. I said “because by the time he would send for the Dory, some one present when the request was made would notify the party and it would be taken away,” but I continued, “If the Commander does not wish to send, let him answer my letter to that effect.” He said he would report, and when would I require the guard. ¶ As it was late that evening to secure a boat, I told him the next morning would be best, nevertheless very shortly afterwards the two men came, I was compelled to tell them I would require them in the morning. I chartered the VENCEDOR, the only boat that could go into the shallow water where the dory was seen, so I went to the Barracks and told the officer in charge, that I was ready for the Guards. He answered what boat is going, I replied the VENCEDOR, and left to go to the office of Mr. Leon Frank, the owner of the boat, to tell him to get her ready. Within five minutes a guard came to say the Commander would not send any guard with the VENCEDOR. I simply replied to tell him to write me a note to that effect. I then went to the Post Office for mail, and about half an hour later, was told a guard was looking for me. He came and said the Commander wishes to see you. I went, and Commander Richardson, asked me how shallow the water was where the Dory had been seen. I answered him I had no knowledge but would ask my native warehouseman, who could give the information. He then said he would rather send one of his boats, and I replied that would be perfectly agreeable to me. The boat with my man on, and a pilot furnished by me, went, but on arrival, found the dory had been taken away. ¶ (Signed) SAM’L WEIL."

18 November 1926.
Letter from J. Oliver Thomas, Hospital, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields (photocopy of original, part of Anna Crowdell Papers).    
"Dear Mrs. A: ¶ How are you? I am feeling sufficiently better to travel, but I am awaiting some word from General George, as I have written him asking just where I may meet him. ¶ Please inform me if any of the boys have gone through or come through Cookra [Cukra] or Pearl Lagoon, and when. ¶ What I would like you to purchase for me, if you have any funds for our benefit, is a rain coat of one kind or another, brown preferred. I think the Red Cross Doctor of the Creole contingent is entitled to something. Whatever else you may have to send, you could send when I am leaving. I am not satisfied to remain here one day longer than I can help, because I am the only medical help our boys have. ¶ Please let me know all particulars today. ¶ With best wishes. ¶ Yours for success. ¶ /s/ J. Oliver Thomas."

18 November 1926.
Letter from J. Oliver Thomas, Hospital, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields (transcription, part of Anna Crowdell Papers).  
[NOTE: this is a State Department transcription of the the above letter:]  "Dear Mrs. A: ¶ How are you? I am feeling sufficiently better to travel, but I am awaiting some word from General George, as I have written him asking just where I may meet him. ¶ Please inform me if any of the boys have gone through or come through Cookra [Cukra] or Pearl Lagoon, and when. ¶ What I would like you to purchase for me, if you have any funds for our benefit, is a rain coat of one kind or another, brown preferred. I think the Red Cross Doctor of the Creole contingent is entitled to something. Whatever else you may have to send, you could send when I am leaving. I am not satisfied to remain here one day longer than I can help, because I am the only medical help our boys have. ¶ Please let me know all particulars today. ¶ With best wishes. ¶ Yours for success. ¶ /s/ J. OLIVER THOMAS."

1.     29 November 1926.
Letter from Edward O. Ingram, Rio Grande, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields, p. 1 (photocopy of original, part of Anna Crowdell Papers), p. 1.   
"Dear Mrs Crowdell: ¶ Among Spaniards, dealing with them, we have got, per force, to adopt their methods. ¶ Our esteemed General Luis Beltran [Liberal General Luis Beltrán Sandoval] has his nose pointed at the funds supposed to be in H.O. and has been making enquiries. I told him, that I had no definite answer as yet, but that I had told you if it were possible to use a part in provisioning George and his men. ¶ The draft I handed in for collection. Gen Moncada does not want Beltran and his gang to learn of this reserve we are holding, as some would be dissipated and made away with, as other funds have been. ¶ Please hand out no information re same until you hear from us. Our situation here is difficult. We have practically to be fighting the energy, contemporizing with our own – and be all eyes, watching each one. Only the sacredness of our . . . "

2.     29 November 1926.
Letter from Edward O. Ingram, Rio Grande, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields, p. 1 (photocopy of original, part of Anna Crowdell Papers), p. 2.   
" . . . cause and a determined spirit keeps one from throwing up in disgust. My position here anyway puts me where I can keep a lookout on our interests and be able at times to hand out criticism from the shoulder. I have had clashes with Moncada, Beltran, Mena and have had the pleasure of telling them my sentiments re their actions. Thanks to our lucky Star, the Creoles practically hold the balance of power and our wishes are to a certain extent respected. ¶ Sacasa should be here at any moment. ¶ We have only to keep a stiff upper lip and do our level best. ¶ I have had to be a veritable Cerberus to keep and stretch what funds come to me. ¶ Clarissa is well and begs to be remembered. ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ /s/ ED. INGRAM ¶ P.S. Preparations for a drubbing at P/L soon. Men have returned from Greytown. All forces are now being concentrated. Not a man was lost at San Juan, while they have about 1000 men between La Junta & San Carlos. /s/ Ed."

3.     29 November 1926.
Letter from Edward O. Ingram, Rio Grande, to Mrs. Anna Crowdell, Bluefields, p. 1 (photocopy of original, part of Anna Crowdell Papers), p. 3.    
[NOTE:  this is a State Department transcription of the above two pages, combined into one page:]    "Dear Mrs Crowdell: ¶ Among Spaniards, dealing with them, we have got, per force, to adopt their methods. ¶ Our esteemed General Luis Beltran [Liberal General Luis Beltrán Sandoval] has his nose pointed at the funds supposed to be in H.O. and has been making enquiries. I told him, that I had no definite answer as yet, but that I had told you if it were possible to use a part in provisioning George and his men. ¶ The draft I handed in for collection. Gen Moncada does not want Beltran and his gang to learn of this reserve we are holding, as some would be dissipated and made away with, as other funds have been. ¶ Please hand out no information re same until you hear from us. Our situation here is difficult. We have practically to be fighting the energy, contemporizing with our own – and be all eyes, watching each one. Only the sacredness of our cause and a determined spirit keeps one from throwing up in disgust. My position here anyway puts me where I can keep a lookout on our interests and be able at times to hand out criticism from the shoulder. I have had clashes with Moncada, Beltran, Mena and have had the pleasure of telling them my sentiments re their actions. Thanks to our lucky Star, the Creoles practically hold the balance of power and our wishes are to a certain extent respected. ¶ Sacasa should be here at any moment. ¶ We have only to keep a stiff upper lip and do our level best. ¶ I have had to be a veritable Cerberus to keep and stretch what funds come to me. ¶ Clarissa is well and begs to be remembered. ¶ Yours very truly, ¶ /s/ ED. INGRAM ¶ P.S. Preparations for a drubbing at P/L soon. Men have returned from Greytown. All forces are now being concentrated. Not a man was lost at San Juan, while they have about 1000 men between La Junta & San Carlos. /s/ Ed."

   
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