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     This is the homepage for 80-some oral testimonies of elderly former Sandinistas.  In the early 1980s, in an official state-sponsored memory project, the Instituto de Estudio del Sandinismo, a branch of the Sandinista Ministry of Culture, sent young revolutionaries up into the northern mountains to interview the old-timers who had fought with Sandino half a century before.  The goals of the project were to rescue these memories and at the same time strengthen the lines of ideological continuity connecting the struggle of the revolutionary Sandinista government with the struggle of Sandino and the EDSN half a century before.  The cassette tapes were then transcribed at the IES office in Managua.  Sadly, the present location of these transcribed testimonies is unknown.  They are not housed in the successor institution to the IES, the Instituto de Historia de Nicaragua y Centroamérica (IHNCA-UCA).  Nor are they available in the Archivo Militar in Managua, which houses the original cassette tapes.  But thanks to the kind courtesy of the IES staff in 1990, photocopies of 77 transcribed testimonies are in the possession of the author.

     These IES-DOCS webpages will house digital images and searchable transcriptions of the full text of these 77 transcribed IES testimonies — nearly 1,000 hardcopy pages in all.  These extraordinarily rich documents arguably comprise the most important primary sources produced on the rebellion since Sandino's assassination in 1934.  For a brief discussion of the contexts of these texts' production and some of the interpretive challenges they present, navigate to the East Coast pages > Documentary Annex > Page 13, or click HERE.  (Photo: Walter Castillo Sandino and his uncle Pedro Antonio Aráuz, San Rafael del Norte, 1980).  Accompanying these 77 IES testimonies are six additional oral testimonies from other sources.



INVENTORY OF IES & OTHER ORAL TESTIMONIES

 

NO. NAME ID No. Pages M / F
       
1 Altamirano, viuda de Ortéz x 1 F
2 Alexander, Alfonso (Colombia) 008-015 43 M
3 Aráuz, Pedro Antonio mss, 086 58 M
4 Ardón Molina, Lizandro 032 14 M
5 Barahona Gamero, José Paul mss, 102 22 M
6 Blandón Diaz, Balbino 085 18 M
7 Blandón Rodriguez, Martin 033 15 M
8 Blandón Rios, Simón 103 10 M
9 Blandón Umanzor, Carlos 035 10 M
10 Boedeker Gonzalez, Luis 055-056 23 M
11 Calderón Salinas, Macario 043-044 18 M
12 Cano Araúz, Luisa 037 6 F
13 Castro Andino, Cosme 049 19 M
14 Centeno Fonseca, Francisco 66 14 M
15 Cerro Castellón, José María 088 19 M
16 Contreras Dávila, Augustín 074 [frag] 2 M
17 Duarte González, Gregorio B-4, 045 17 M
18 Espinales López, Eulogio 062 17 M
19 Fajardo Araúz, Joaquín 100-101 27 M
20 Flores Gradys, José 058 22 M
21 García Castro, Feliciano 048 17 M
22 González Zeledón, Sinforoso 070 [frag] 1 M
23 Gutiérrez Hernández, Luciano 102-B 6 M
24 Hernández Blandón, Secundino 047 17 M
25 Hernández Blandón, Sixto 036 11 M
27 Jarquín Velásquez, Tomás 091 11 M
28 Jirón, Simón, a.k.a. 'Pichingo' 030 7 M
29 Joya Dávila, Pastor 027 4 M
30 Lara López, Francisco 059 22 M
31 López Hernández, Abelino 100 11 M
32 López Mejía, Santos 026 10 M
33 Martínez, Sinforoso 006 7 M
34 Martínez Flores, Ramón 096 6 M
35 Martínez Martínez, Lorenzo 002 8 M
36 Martínez Soza, Angel 060 14 M
37 Melgara Sevilla, José Adán 010 2 M
38 Montenegro Rivera, Ignacio Antonio 068 1 M
39 Mora, Ladislao B-3 2 M
40 Moreno, Emilio Antonio B-1 6 M
41 Moreno Rodriguez, Jeremías     M
42 Muñoz Obando, Ricardo 075, 098-99 32 M
43 Ortega Aldabia, Nasario 039 15 M
44 Ortíz, Benigno 086 5 M
45 Ortíz, José 086 1 M
46 Osabas Izaguirre, Aurelio 057 25 M
47 Palacios, Augustín 034 10 M
48 Palacios Herrera, Dr. Pío Perfecto C-1 3 M
49 Pérez, Domingo 007 7 M
50 Piñeda, Juan de Dios 029 7 M
51 Quintero Lumbi, Ezequiel 031 16 M
52 Ramírez, Pastor Mejía 094 31 M
53 Ramírez Velásquez, Juan Pablo 003, 004 22 M
54 Reyes Fuentes, Matías 061 15 M
55 Rivas, Mercedes 067 1 M
56 Rodríguez Casco, Anastasio 081 2 M
57 Romero López, Juan 092 17 M
58 Romero Roche, Felipe 079 18 M
59 Rostrán Navarette, Antonio 090 13 M
60 Rugama, Angelina 046 3 F
61 Rugama Rodríguez, Gerardo 064 2 M
62 Salas Isaguirre, Emilio 028 9 M
63 Sánchez Ramos, José 104, mss 18 M
64 Sebastian, Compañero. 001 8 M
65 Socorro Rodríguez García, Juana del 073 4 F
66 Tercero García, Juan Bautista 093 20 M
67 Tercero García, Calixto 095, 097 32 M
68 Toruño Hidalgo, Toribio 103 8 M
69 Toruño Reyes, Heriberto 078 22 M
70 Ubeda, Juan 086 4 M
71 Ucles Marín, José Antonio 071 3 M
72 Uriarte Meléndez, Engracia 082 1 F
73 Vallejos Ruiz, Marcelino 080 1 M
74 Zelaya, José y Rosa 086 4 M & F
75 Zelaya Hernández, Jerónimo 063 1 M
76 Zelaya Herrera, Tiburcio 072, mss 14 M
77 Zepeda Galeano, Francisco 076 25 M
       
OTHER TESTIMONIES      
       
78 Guillén, Camilo* A 8 M
79 Herrera Siles, Eudiviges** B 10 M
80 López, Santos *** C 39 M
81 Pavletich, Esteban D 15 M
82 Girón Ruano, Manuel María E 12 M
83 "Papeles de bandolerismo:  Cartas y notas de Sandino y Sandinistas a Luis Frenzel, Yali, 1927-29, con comentarios de Hulda Frenzel de Castro, su hija."  (PDF file, 13.0 MB.)**** G 28 M & F
84 "Augusto C. Sandino según Don Adán Zeledón," YouTube interview (1:34), offsite here:  www.youtube.com/watch?v=1XQSnMg2o9I. H 1:34 M
       

     TOTAL:

1,004

pgs

* In Claribel Alegria and D. J. Flakoll, Nicaragua: la revolución sandinista. Una crónica política, 1855-1979  (Mexico City: Era, 1982).

** Interview with Michael J. Schroeder, Estelí, October 1990.

*** Santos López, Memorias de un soldado  (Managua: Frente Estudiantil Revolucionario, Julio de 1976).

**** The original is permanently housed in the Iberoamerikanisches Institut, Berlin, Germany, and can be accessed via the website of the Museo Entomológico de León in León, Nicaragua, offsite here:  www.bio-nica.info/Biblioteca/BibliHistoria.htm.  Manuscript and hyperlink thanks to the kind courtesy of Sr. E. Arturo Castro-Frenzel.