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 100 notable documents

 
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      All these documents  were created by non-Sandinistas.   They were culled from the records of the US Marines and Nicaraguan National Guard, a sprawling collection that includes spies' reports, declarations from native citizens, private letters, court records, in all a dizzying array of voices — and from the Nicaraguan National Archives, newspapers, State Department reports, and other types of records (except PC-Docs, which are so rich as to comprise a category unto themselves;  right:  prominent engineer & Segovian citizen Camilo Castellón; left, Conservative foot soldiers in camp, March 1927).

     Some are very brief.  Others are long, detailed, convoluted.  All strike me as uncommonly illuminating, offering insights into the Sandinistas' beliefs, moral codes, values & practices, and/or the cultural, social & political landscape of Las Segovias, Nicaragua, and Central & Latin America at the time.  They express the outsider's gaze, conveying first-hand eyewitness knowledge about the EDSN and its social & cultural environment, filtered through institutional and ideological prisms of various kinds:  a newspaper editor; a local court; an intelligence analyst; a patrol commander; a missionary; a wandering Spaniard.  They can be wonderfully challenging to interpret.  A fair number describe events that are the subject of extensive documentation and lend themselves to further inquiry & research.   

    Each document  is accompanied by an introductory note that sketches the contexts of its production and suggests some reasons why it seems especially useful.  The FINAL FIVE sets of documents reach back to the rebellion's antecedents, placed at the end so the story does not bog down early on.  On each Top 100 page are two navigation boxes:  the top box takes you from Doc to Doc (page to page), and the bottom box takes you to the document's location here in this Homepage List.  An asterisk  *  in the Doc column means the document is on its way.  Pages are still under construction, but there's a fair amount here.  I thank Pleet Initiative-funded Lebanon Valley College student researchers Katrina Wells for her help with the navigation design and Nick Quadrini for his help transcribing. 

doc

Date

 Name

 Description

   Source

 
         

1

22.03.29

Camilo Castellón

Newspaper article on Las Segovias & building of the Limay-San Albino Road

NEWS22.03.29

top

2

27.06.21

Charles Butters

Statement on Sandino's return to San Albino Mine, June 1927

M27.06.21

top

3

27.12.06

L. J. Matteson

Interview on Sandino's seizure of San Albino Mine, June-August 1927

M27.12.06

top

4

28.02.23

Anastasio Rugama

Statements of Anastasio Rugama & Eudovio Cornejo, captured EDSN, Matagalpa

M28.02.23

top

5

28.03.20

Jerónimo Rios

Interview with trader familiar with trails from Matagalpa to East Coast

M28.03.20a

top

6

28.03.20

anonymous spy

Report on mission to Darailí & San Rafael del Norte

M28.03.20b

top

7

28.04.21

Julio César Rivas

The case of Julio César Rivas, Sandinista pretender

M28.04.21 / USDS to March 1929

top

8

28.04.22

Joaquín Álvarez

Report on EDSN between Puerto Cabezas & Wauni by captive of EDSN

IR28.04.22

top

9

28.05.06

Fletcher, et al.

Sacking of the Neptune, Lone Star & La Luz Mines, April 1928

USDS817.00/5739, IR28.05.06: 3

top

10

28.05.07

Zelaya brothers

Report of capture & release by Pedrón

IR28.05.27: 6

top

11

28.08.24

Abraham Rivera

Statement of Abraham Rivera

M28.08.24

top

12

28.08.25

Camilo Castellón

Relato of kidnapping by EDSN under Miguel Angel Ortéz

ANN / M28.08.25

top

13

28.09.02

ximo Hernández

EDSN prisoner interrogated, Ocotal district

M28.09.02

top

14

28.09.14

Gavino Bucardo

Gavino Bucardo, 'first-class fighting man', goes home to plant a crop

IR28.10.08: 7

top

15

28.09.14

Tomás Guatemala

Reluctant rebel surrenders at Jinotega

IR28.10.08: 7, others

top

16

28.09.24

Former rebel jefe

.

Former rebel jefe with José León Díaz & Carlos Salgado spills his guts

IR28.09.24: 9-10, IR28.10.08: 6

top

17

28.09.24

Navas (spy)

 

Spy's Report, Jalapa district

M28.09.24

top

18

28.09.30

Agent #88 (spy)

Agent #88 report on political intrigue in the southWestern Honduran borderlands

M28.09.30

top

19

28.10.08

Ciriaco Picado

Ciriaco Picado, EDSN under Miguel Angel Ortéz, captured & interrogated

IR28.10.08: 8, 10

top

20

28.10.08

11th Reg't, Ocotal  OR — ARBEITER-ILLUSTRIERTE-ZEITUNG (BERLIN)

MARINE-GUARDIA ANALYST CONCLUDES THAT SANDINISTAS HAVE organized a civic guard — or — “BEI DEM REBELLENGENERAL SANDINO” IN ARBEITER-ILLUSTRIERTE-ZEITUNG (BERLIN)

IR28.10.08: 9   /  RG127/38/30

top

21

28.10.22

Pablo Ramírez

Pablo Ramírez, rebel deserter brought into Jinotega by his father

IR28.10.22: 6

top

22

28.10.24

Pedrón

Investigation into the San Marcos murders, 1-2 October 1928

M28.10.01

top

23

28.11.06

Humberto Torres

Humberto Torres on Sandino's life & constitutionalist campaign

M28.11.06

top

24

28.12.17

Emilio Vallecillo

Emilio Vallecillo, brother of EDSN Sgt. Major Maximiliano Vallecillo, interrogated by USMC-GN

IR28.12.17: 8

top

25

29.01.14

Idelfonso Molina

Ildefonso Molina on his capture & release by EDSN, December 1928

IR29.01.14: 6-7

top

26

29.02.01

Dr. Domingo Mairena Hernández

Dr. Domingo Mairena Hernández resigns his commission in the Defending Army

IR29.02.12: 11-12

top

27

29.02.03

Gen. Manuel María Girón Ruano

Statement to Herbert H. Hanneken before execution by Juan Escamilla, with transcripts of bush trial

MCRC-Smith/7

top

28

29.02.05

anonymous

A Few Details on Certain Persons Who Are Sandinistas Under Cover  (Ocotal district)

M29.02.05

top

29

29.02.12

Rogelio Mangas

Statement of deserter from Pedrón

IR29.02.12: 5, 7

top

30

29.02.12

Mierisch mandador

Report on Pedrón's visit to Bruno Mierisch coffee farm

IR29.02.12: 3-4

top

31

29.02.15

Domingo Pérez

Intelligence from Domingo Pérez, surrendered from Pedrón

IR29.02.25: 5

top

32

29.03.28

anonymous

Information on Pedrón's band from anonymous Jinotega finca owners

M29.03.28

top

33

29.04.08

Stockes & Hakala

Military operations in the southwestern Honduran borderlands, March 27-April 6, 1929

IR29.04.08

top

34

29.04.09

Locadia López Zamora

Statement by Locadia López Zamora on atrocity by band under Juan Pablo Umanzor near Dipilto

IR29.05.13: 5-6

top

35

29.04.10

Felipe Zelaya & Emilio Siles

Mandador held & released, anciano killed by EDSN under Pedrón

M29.04.24

top

36

29.04.23

Jesús Vásquez

Statement of Jesús Vásquez, captured EDSN under Santos Vásquez & Pedrón

IR29.05.13: 4

top

37

29.04.24

Juan García

Statement of Juan García on rebel activities in Cifuentes & Danlí, honduras

IR29.05.12: 3

top

38

29.07.17

Alejandro Molina

Alejandro Molina on his life as a Sandinista, Dec 1927-Feb 1929

IR29.07.28: 7-8

top

39

29.05.20

Moisés Pérez

Statement of Moisés Pérez, coffee dealer, charged with supplying rebels with clothing

M29.05.20

top

40

29.06.01

Toribio Dávila

Information obtained from rebel Toribio Dávila before his execution by Hanneken & Escamilla

IR29.06.16: 8-10

top

41

29.06.10

Enrique Trewin

Enrique Trewin, Matagalpa coffee planter, describes sacking by 'Pedrón's crowd'

M29.06.10 / USDS

top

42

29.06.23

Rosa Amelia Córdoba

protest by women of Palacagüina against destruction of church by US Marines

M29.06.23, RG127/206/2

top

43

29.07.17

Alejandro Medina

Information from captured EDSN soldier Alejandro Medina on jefes in San Juan de Telpaneca area

IR29.07.28: 7-8

top

44

29.07.17

unknown

Statement of native held prisoner by Pedrón for 15 days

IR29.07.27: 3-4

top

45

29.07.18

Capt. Geo. F. Stockes

 .

Biographical sketch of EDSN General José León Díaz

IR29.07.18: 10-11

top

46

29.07.20

Mercedes & Jorge Herrera

Information from Mercedes & Jorge Herrera, held captive by Gen. Ismael Peralta for 9 days

IR29.07.28: 5-6

top

47

30.01.31

J. Salomé Herrera

Statement of schoolmaster on death of Dionisio Arteta, Colón Valley

IR30.01.31: 20

top

48

30.02.14

Juan Blandón

Information volunteered to Guardia disguised as EDSN by Sandinista message center operative

M30.02.14

top

49*

30.02.20

J. Salvador Gómez

Diligencias contra J. Salvador Gómez por andar con y prestar auxilio a los grupos Sandinistas

M30.02.20, RG127/209/3

orig. municipio de Telpaneca

top

50

30.04.02

Francisco Blandón & Roberto Vindel

Statements of Francisco Blandón & Roberto Vindel, held captive by Santos Vásquez group

M30.04.02

top

51*

30.04.28

Adrian Blandón

Statement of hacienda owner Adrian Blandón to Ministerio de Gobernación on bandolerismo

M30.04.28, RG127/202/15/60

top

52

30.05.22

F.  Hernández & Máximo Cruz

Statements of Francisco Hernández & Máximo Cruz, captured EDSN under Ferbonio Vaquedano

M30.05.22, RG127/209/3

top

53

30.05.29

Arthur Pineda, et al.

Information from witnesses on Pedrón's raid of Neptune Mine, May 12-15, 1930

ATL 30.05.29, RG127/200

top

54

30.09.01

Moisés Castro

Statement of prisoner Moisés Castro implicated in crimes of Juan Botón

M30.09.01

top

55

30.09.18

Juan Echevarría

Declaration of GN Private Juan Echevarría on Telpaneca mutinies, 6 & 21 Oct 1929

M30.09.18

top

56

30.09.23

Feliciano Centeno Altamirano

Surrender of Pedrón's 'hijo político' Feliciano Centeno Altamirano

M30.09.23

top

57

30.10.16

Calixto González

Statement of Calixto González, captured member of Roque Vargas group, Quilalí area

M30.10.16

top

58

30.11.19

Juan Midence

Chance encounter with Gen. Miguel Angel Ortéz by Juan Midence, Pueblo Nuevo butcher

M30.11.19

top

59

30.12.31

Pilar López & Felix Zambrana

Declarations of captured rebels Pilar López & Felix Zambrana, El Jícaro

M30.12.31

top

60

31.01.03

Tomás Martínez

Statement of captured rebel Tomás Martínez, courier for Ortéz

IR31.01.04: 3-4

top

61

31.01.28

anonymous

Information from a reliable source on Miguel Angel Ortéz & rebels in Ocotal-Somoto district

M31.01.28

top

62

31.02.20

anonymous

'Information elicited from natives, for the most part reliable' on EDSN activities on the Upper Río Coco

M31.02.20, RG127/43A

top

63

31.03.31

A. O. Dannenberger

Report on Moravian missionary Br. Bregenzer's death by Sumu Indian from Musuwas

Moravian Archives, PA

top

64

31.04.21

Capt. Marston, et al.

Select reports on the Sandinista offensive into the atlantic Coast, March-April 1931

RG127/200/1

top

65

31.05.04

J. A. Fagot

Statement of J. A. Fagot on EDSN Activities on the East Coast

 IR31.06.01: 9-10

top

66

31.05.13

Ramiro M. Sáenz

Spaniard walking through C. America bumps into the  Sandinistas, spends 3 weeks & writes an article

M31.05.13

top

67

31.07.01

Alberto Rivera

Statement of captured Sandinista Alberto Rivera under Pedro A. Irías & Pedrón

IR31.07.01: 8-9

top

68

31.07.11

Hermengildo Gutiérrez

Statement of Hermenegildo Gutiérrez, Yalí, on his capture by Pedrón's forces

M31.07.11

top

69

31.07.22

2 Ocotal citizens

Information from 2 reliable citizens, Ocotal, about rebel activities in Honduras

M31.07.22

top

70

31.07.23

Wilhelm Pfaeffle

Statement of Mr. W. Pfaeffle on Pedrón raid of Javalí Mine, Chontales

M31.07.23

top

71

31.07.25

FFM

Letter to Mr. John Brownson, Acting Manager [UFCo], New Orleans, on EDSN on East Coast

M31.07.25

top

72

31.08.11

I. Molina R.

Message from Guardia spy I. Molina R. to Capt. Brauer, Palacagüina

M31.08.11

top

73

31.08.13

Catalino Olivas

Presentation and interrogation of rebel jefe Catalina Olivas in Palacagüina

M31.08.13

top

74

31.08.20

Isidro Polanco

Intelligence from surrendered EDSN Sgt. Isidro Polanco

M31.08.20a

top

75

31.10.07

 

Capt. Inman, et al.

REPORTS ON THE DEATH OF ADOLFO COCKBURN, EDSN GENERAL & DEPUTY IN THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

M31.10.07, RG127/43A/30 &c

top

76

31.10.11

Teodoro Siles

Information received from Teodoro Siles, held prisoner by EDSN

M31.10.11

top

77

31.12.04

Arturo R. Garmendia

Statement of Arturo R. Garmendia, Ocotal, on EDSN activities in Las Segovias & Honduras

M31.12.04

top

78

32.01.01

Sebastian Ismael & Mr. Statin

Information on EDSN sacking of Suina mine by Pedron & Irias, 14-18 Dec. 1931

IR32.01.01: 8-9

top

79

32.01.03

Ramón Rodríguez

Statement of GN agent & Miskitu Indian Ramón Rodríguez on EDSN on lower Río Coco

M32.01.03

top

80

32.02.09

Tulio Rodríguez

Interview with Tulio Rodríguez of Jalapa, captured by EDSN & escaped

IR32.03.01: 35-36

top

81

32.03.01

secret agent

'Very reliable & trustworthy property owner near Honduran border' reports on events

IR32.03.01: 11-12

top

82

32.03.10

Guillermo Cuadra

Informe:  Viaje a la República de Honduras, C.A.:  Spy report

M32.03.10

top

83

32.05.17

Ambrosia López Alfaro

Intelligence from Ambrosia López Alfaro, woman of EDSN jefe Segundo Alfaro

M32.05.17

top

84

32.05.18

GRUPO DE OBREROS Y ESTUDIANTES (G.D.O.Y.E.), MANAGUA

"El caso de Nicaragua y la actitud del Gral. Sandino", propaganda flier, Managua & El Salvador

RG127/E38/Box 25

top

85

32.05.30

Damaso Gómez & Florencio Sáens

Declaraciones tomadas de Damaso Gómez y Florencio Saens, EDSN prisoners, May 20-30

M32.05.30

top

86

32.06.19

Leoncio Navarrete

Declarations of Alberto Valle & Leoncio Navarrete, held prisoner by Pedrón & Sandino

M32.06.19

top

87*

32.07.01

Nicolás Gómez

Information from coffee buyer Nicolás Gómez of yasica, RÍo Grande, held captive by Pedrón

IR32.07.01: 21-23

top

88*

32.07.01

Rafael Ochoa H.

Statement of Rafael Ochoa H. of Paso Real, Jinotega, on EDSN in district

IR32.07.01: 21-23

top

89

32.07.15

Enrique F. Sánchez

Statement of Enrique Sánchez F., held captive by EDSN under Umanzor

M32.07.15

top

90*

32.07.25

Capt. W. J. Stone, USMC

'Recent bandit activities and Guardia offensive operations,' Atlantic Coast, July 17-24

RG80/EF49/2006

top

91*

32.08.01

Reliable citizen of Ocotal

Information from reliable citizen of Ocotal on natives of Matagalpa held prisoner by EDSN

IR32.08.01: 21-22

top

92*

32.09.01

highly placed spy

Spy intelligence on EDSN camps, movements, Pedrón, Sandino, Blanca, &c

IR32.09.01: 26-28

top

93*

32.09.03

 

Apolinar Cruz

Account of detention by Pedrón, June-Sept.

ASG  342-348

top

94*

32.09.19

 

Ramón Romero

Information from surrendered rebel in Telpaneca district under Carlos Salgado

IR32.10.01: 30-31

top

95

34.02.21

Major Fred T. Cruse, et al.

Fat file 'Sandino Situation' by US Military Intelligence Division, international aspects, 1928-33

RG165/77

top

 
         

ANTECEDENTS
 
         

96

19.09.27

Natividad Rivera et al.

Public sale of properties of Natividad Rivera, San Rafael del Norte, 1919

M19.09.27

San Rafael del Norte testimonio no. 138

top

97*

26.08.01

Junta Revolucionaria Nicaragüense

Programa de acción by the Junta Revolucionaria Nicaragüense captured at the battle of Cosegüina, 30 Aug. 1926

RG165/11

top

98*

27.02.15

27.09.25

'Otro Caballero' y otros

'¿Quiènes Incendiaron Chinandega?' in Feb. 1927, by 'Otro Caballero,' Granada  

Diario Moderno, 27.09.25

top

99

27.03.05

27.05.07

US Military Attaché Major A. W. Bloor

Reports on the Nicaraguan Civil War, March-May 1927

RG165/77  (7 documents, 58 images)

top

100

27.05.04

various

Nicaraguans' letters to US Special Envoy Henry Stimson on the Espino Negro Accord, APRIL-May 1927

USDS 817.00/4954  (93 documents, 217 images)

top

101

28.03.05

Hernández & Torres

Prison declarations of Anastasio Hernández and José Eulalio Torres

RG127/192/5   (26 documents)

top

   
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