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usmc-docs  •  ROBERT H. DUNLAP
R. H. dUNLAP PAPERS, 1929-1931  •  page 2

     THIS IS THE SECOND OF TWO PAGES housing materials culled from the Robert H. Dunlap collection in the Marine Corps Research Center (CLICK HERE FOR PAGE 1).   Born in 1879 in Washington D.C., Dunlap served in the US Marine Corps in the Spanish-Cuban-American War (1898), the Filipino Insurrection (1899-1902), the Boxer Rebellion in China (1900), Panama (1903-04), Veracruz, Mexico (1914), Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1915-17) and France in the Great War and its aftermath (1918-19), and Peking (1922-24) before becoming Commander of the Marine Corps School in Quantico (1925-28).   (Right:  Capt. Dunlap's identity card from the Great War)

     Colonel Dunlap's Nicaragua duty commenced in January 1928, part of the military buildup in anticipation of US-supervised elections later in the year.  For 19 months — from 19 January 1928 to 20 August 1929 — Dunlap served as Commander of the 11th Regiment of the 2nd Brigade of the U.S. Marines in Nicaragua, and as Northern Area Commander in the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua, based in Ocotal.  His successor as Northern Area Commander in Ocotal was Col. Robert L. Denig (see DENIG DIARY & PAPERS).

     These two web pages house nine documents and 58 photographs.  This page is devoted to the collection's ten photographs of the Voluntarios, all taken on February 14, 1929 in or just outside Ocotal.  Six of these are labeled "NEW" because they have not been found in any other collections.  A critical reading of these photographs is offered in  PHOTO-DOCS > USMC-GN > VOLUNTARIOS. 

     Grateful acknowledgement is extended to the staff of Archives & Special Collections of the MCRC; to Lebanon Valley College students Olivia Edwards, Nicole Wilhelm, and Mary 'Katie' Yost for their excellent work at the MCRC for three days in early January 2015; and to the Arnold Grant in Experiential Education for funding this research.

5.  Fotos de Los Voluntarios, 14 de Febrero de 1929

Note:   Six of the following 10 photos are labeled "NEW" because each adds to the stock of known photographs of the Voluntarios, a fascinating counterinsurgency experiment undertaken by the Marines & Guardia from January to June 1929; see GUARDIA > VOLUNTARIOS.  These & other photos of the Voluntarios are also housed and more thoroughly interpreted in PHOTO-DOCS > USMC-GN > VOLUNTARIOS.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Caption on rear:  "Colonel Dunlap, Ocotal, Nicaragua. Gen. Caldera on my right - all the rest cols or something."  One in a fascinating series of photographs on the Voluntarios mustering, mobilizing, and heading off into the hills on this February day.  NEW.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Probably right before the more formal photographs taken moments later.  At left, around 50 Voluntario enlisted men stand in formation for inspection along Ocotal's main street next to the central park, left shoulder arms, more or less, as a group of eight officers gathers at right — four US Marines and four Voluntarios, among them Col. Dunlap and Gen. Augusto Caldera.  A man walks into the scene from the left, headed for the clutch of officers.  In the far background, four civilian men in white hats stand at the street corner, observing.  Again, not a hatless head or a female in sight.  NEW.   

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Col. Dunlap, Gen. Augusto Caldera, and other Voluntario officers stand in rough formation next to an adobe wall next to Ocotal's central park. This is NOT the same adobe wall that the enlisted Voluntarios are standing next to in the above photograph.  This is a different adobe wall, next to a different building.  The shadows here are long.   It is getting toward sunset.  The soldier in line closest to the camera carries a trumpet in his right hand.  They appear to be waiting . . . for something.  NEW.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Col. Dunlap inspects a line of Voluntarios, with ribbons around their hats (of what color?  Green?), with Voluntario officers accompanying Dunlap on the inspection.  NEW.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Another in the series.  Col. Dunlap, Gen. Augusto Caldera, and perhaps Pichingo (at far right).  In other collections.

Outskirts of Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Voluntarios on the march out of Ocotal.  In other collections.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Voluntarios mustering; another in the series.  NEW.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  Caption on rear:  "From Dunlap folder, Photos, Nicaragua. Lt. Herman Hanneken, Lt. H. R. Paige, Gen. Juan Escamilla & Nicaraguan Volunteers, 1929."  An exceptionally high quality copy of a photo found in other collections.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.  One of the most interesting & revealing in the series on the Voluntarios mustering in Ocotal on this February day.  There's a whole lot going on in this photograph, as illustrated in Photo-Docs.  NEW.

Ocotal, February 14, 1929.   Very good copy of a photo appearing in other collections.  No caption in Dunlap copy, but caption in copy in USNA2/RG127 reads:  "Ocotal, Nicaragua, 14 Feb 1929. General Caldera and volunteers.  Shown in photo also Brigadier General R. H. Dunlap and Lieutenant Dawson."  The caption is twice mistaken:  Dunlap was a colonel at the time, and Lt. Dawson is not in this photograph.