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This collection of photos is page 4 of the four main pages of documents on the Voluntarios of 1929.

Most of the photos on this page are high-resolution (600 dpi) JPEG scans of the originals.  For the full-size images, click on the thumbnails on the right-hand side of the title-bars.

Photo USMC-GN-7.1.   General Moncada & His Jefes, July 1927.

This invaluable photograph identifies seven important Liberal military chieftains of the Civil War, and helps to explain Escamilla's intimacy with President Moncada after Moncada's election in November 1928.  Three of these generals became Voluntario Jefes Expedicionarios:  Juan Escamilla (2), Alejandro Plata (4), and Augusto Caldera (6) — though the man identified as "Calders" (Caldera) bears little resemblance to other images of Caldera (see below).  Both Carlos Castro Wassmer (3) and Ramón Telles (5) remained influential Liberal leaders into the 1930s and after.  "Sobalrano" (7) is actually Carlos Salgado, a minor Liberal general in the Western Segovias during the Civil War and one of the few Liberal military leaders to follow Sandino — in his case, from around August 1927, a month after this photo was taken (see the letters of August 1927 between Moncada & Salgado in EDSN-DOCS).  Salgado remained one of the staunchest & most elusive of all Sandinista jefes.  Everyone else here became Sandino's enemy.  (Source:  USNA2/RG127)

1. Jose Maria Moncada  2. Juan Escamilla  3. Carlos Castro Wassmer  4. Alejandro Plata 

5. Ramón Telles  6. Augusto Caldera  7. Carlos Salgado 

Photos USMC-GN-7.2 & 7.3.   General Alejandro Plata, ca. 1927.

These marvelous formal photographs of General Alejandro Plata, undated but clearly taken on the same day, are probably from around the time of the 1926-27 Nicaraguan Civil War.  He looks considerably younger than one might imagine.  (Source:  USNA1/RG127/E38/Box 29)

General Alejandro Plata

Photo USMC-GN-7.4.   General Juan Escamilla, 1927.

This is another marvelous photograph and the best we have of General Juan Escamilla, probably in Managua at the conclusion of the 1926-27 Civil War (note the automobile in the left background).   (Source:  USNA1/RG127/E38/Box 29)

General Juan Escamilla 

Photo USMC-GN-7.5.   Hanneken & Escamilla in Ocotal, 14 Feb. 1929.

Caption reads:  "Left to right: Lieutenant Hanneken, General Juan Escamilla, Colonel Robert H. Dunlap, Captain Reagan and Nicaraguan Volunteers. 14 February 1929."  This is the only known photograph showing Hanneken & Escamilla together.  Shadows obscure most of the faces in what looks to be the mid-afternoon sun.  This photo should be viewed alongside the photograph to follow (USMC-GN 7.6) — both taken only a few moments apart.  The main differences are the angle of the photo and that in the second photo, Hanneken left the front row, took off his tie, and stood in the rear against the wall.  Here, too, his face is obscured.  Apparently Hannken, shown holding a cigar in his right hand, did not want his picture taken.  The footwear is notable, especially the contrast between the leather riding boots & spurs of the jefes in the front row and the simple native sandles worn by most of the men behind them.   (Source:  USNA2/RG127)

Hanneken & Escamilla, Ocotal, 14 February 1929

Hanneken & Escamilla, Ocotal, 14 February 1929

Lt. H. H. Hanneken Gral. Juan Escamilla  Col. Robert Dunlap Capt. R. Reagan

Unknown Voluntario Unknown Voluntario Unknown Voluntario Unknown Voluntario

Photo USMC-GN-7.6.   Escamilla, Dunlap & Hanneken (in rear), Ocotal, 14 Feb. 14, 1929

Above:   Stitched composite of two different prints of the same photograph, as seen below (click on thumbnails for full images):


Above right:  Caption of the second version of this photo reads:  "Voluntarios under Capt. H. H. Hanneken & General Juan Escamilla at Ocotal, Feb. 14, 1929."

Now let's compare this photograph with the previous one  (USMC-GN-7.5).  

Here are the two photographs placed side by side:

In the first photo we see Hanneken at left wearing a tie and holding a cigar.  The photographer then took a few steps back and to the left and snapped another shot.  In the meantime, Hanneken had taken off his tie and gone round to the rear of the formation.  Everyone else is in the same relative position — except for Hanneken.  Why did he remove his tie, and remove himself from the center of power?  Who knows?  Maybe he avoided cameras because he sensed that someday people would write about him in their books.  The cigar held by Capt. Reagan looks an inch or so shorter in the second photo, indicating that at least a few minutes had elapsed between shots.  Colonel Dunlap was raising his left hand and making some kind of gesture just as the photographer snapped the shutter.  (Source:  USNA2/RG127)

Photo 7.5
Hanneken in front
Photo 7.6
Hanneken at rear
Photo 7.5
Reagan's long cigar 
Photo 7.6
Reagan's shorter cigar

What about the lit cigars being held by the US officers?  Not only do they tell us that a bit of time elapsed between these two photographs.  They also suggest a ritual of exclusivity & privilege that set the Americans apart as distinct from & superior to their Nicaraguan counterparts (note that no Nicaraguans hold cigars).  At another level, smoking cigars — like downing a shot of liquor — was a common way for Marine Corps officers to ritually acknowledge the successful conclusion of a significant event — in this case, their February 14, 1929 inspection & review of the Voluntario forces & meetings with Voluntario chieftains in Ocotal.  The content & tenor of these two photos together suggest that the morning meetings & inspections were over, the formalities were coming to a close, and Hanneken figured it was finally time to take off his tie — another gesture laden with exclusivity & privilege.

Photo USMC-GN-7.7.   Dunlap, Stockes, Caldera & Voluntarios in Ocotal, 14 Feb. 1929.

Caption reads:  "Ocotal, Nicaragua, 14 Feb 1929.  General Caldera and volunteers.  Shown in photo also Brigadier General R. H. Dunlap and Lieutenant Dawson."  Dunlap looks to be the only person to appear in this photo and the two photos above.

Photo USMC-GN-7.8.   Dunlap, Caldera & Voluntarios, Ocotal 14 Feb. 1929


Above:  Caption reads:  "Ocotal, Nicaragua, 14 Feb 1929.  General Caldera and volunteers.  Shown in photo also Brigadier General R. H. Dunlap and Lieutenant Dawson."  (Source:  USNA2/RG127.)  The caption is twice mistaken:  Dunlap was a colonel at the time, and Lt. Dawson is not in this photograph.  A second archival print of the photo, below, has a narrower field of vision but much greater detail:

Above:  Caption reads:  "General Caldera & Voluntarios near Ocotal, ca. 14 February 1929."    Dunlap looks to be the only person to appear in this photo and the two photos above (7.6 & 7.7).

From Capt. Stockes' photos (7.10 & 7.11, below), we can positively identify the three men at left:  Voluntario Col. Cordero; USMC Col. R. H. Dunlap; and Voluntario General Augusto Caldera.

Photo USMC-GN-7.9.   Mounted Voluntarios & Col. Dunlap, c. Feb. 1929.


Above:  Caption reads:  "Marine guards on patrol.  Left to right, Capt. Stockes, General Caldera, Colonel Mondodo and a noted guide".   The "noted guide" is very probably Simón Jirón, a.k.a. "Pichingo".  (Source:  USNA2/RG127)

Above:  Capt. George F. Stockes & General Augusto Caldera outside Ocotal, February 1929.

Above:  Probably Simón Jirón, a.k.a. Pichingo.

Photo USMC-GN-7.10.   Voluntario Jefes Cordero, Caldera & Espinosa with Capt. Stockes.

Above:  Caption on rear reads:  "Lt. Neal, G.N., Col. Cordero, Vol., Gen. Caldera, Vol., Capt. Stockes, USMC, Capt. Espinosa, Vol".   (Source:  MCRC/Personal Papers Collection/ George F. Stockes)

Photo USMC-GN-7.11.  Voluntario Jefes Maradiaga, Espinoza, Cordero, Castillo & Caldera with Stockes & Dawson.


Above:  Caption reads:  "Lt. Manuel Magragigi, Vol., Capt. Jose Espinoza, Vol., Colonel Cordero, Vol., Colonel Castillio, Vol., General A. Caldera, Vol., Captain Geo. F. Stockes, U.S.M.C., 1st Lt. M. L. Dawson, Jr., U.S.M.C."   (Source:  MCRC/Personal Papers Collection/ George F. Stockes)

Photo USMC-GN-7.12.   Mounted Voluntario Column Outside Ocotal.

Above:  Caption reads:  "Voluntarios in the Segovias."   The profile mountain in the background is recognizable in a photo of the church in Ocotal (below), confirming that this photo was taken just outside Ocotal.

Below:   The church in Ocotal, with the same mountain profile in the background  (Source: USNA2/RG127).

Below:   Sepia-colored detail.

Photo USMC-GN-7.13.  Gral. Juan Escamilla on Niquinohomo-Granada Road.

Caption reads:  "Placa conmemorativa de la inauguración de la carretera Niquinohomo-Granada.  Dirigida por Gral. Escamilla.  Foto Diriamba."  Date unknown, ca. 1926.  Photo via the kind courtesy of Joshue Escamilla, the grandson of Juan Escamilla.

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