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The  Segovian Borderlands, 1919-1926    Military Mobilization, Political Struggles & Social Conditions


     In the years 1919-1926, the Segovian borderlands experienced three bouts of civil war:  two in Honduras (July-Sept. 1919 and Jan-March 1924) and one in Nicaragua (Aug 1926 through April 1927).   Between these political earthquakes were lesser episodes of violence and unrest.  This page presents about 120 documents from a variety of sources on events in the Segovian borderlands in the 7½ years from from July 1919 to December 1926.  Together they provide a fascinating glimpse into the complex history of political and military struggle in this hotly contested border region.  They show that the Segovian borderlands were steeped in political-military mobilization from at least 1919, a social reality shrewdly exploited by Sandino and his followers after May 1927.

     Only some of the material compiled here makes direct reference to events in these borderlands.  Such references generally appear in blue text.  Of course, no direct references to military mobilization or violence in the borderlands does not mean that no troops were being mobilized or that no one was fighting or dying there.  The events prompting production of these documents were considered big enough to merit newspaper coverage or official mention of some kind.  Even when events in border zones were mentioned, it is clear that most of what was happening there was flying under the radar screen.  For historians, the avalanche of empirical evidence comes with the US invasion and occupation of Las Segovias after mid-1927.  Still, we learn a lot from these documents about the eight years before Sandino appeared on the scene.

    For a brief summary of the major events shaping borderlands history in the years 1919-1926, in an MSWord file, click here.  For an Excel file charting this unrest, click here.  The most concise and authoritative summary of Honduran history available online is the US Government Country Study series; to go offsite to the volume on Honduras, click here.  (Photos: US Marines posing with Nicaraguan soldiers at Santo Tomás, Nicaragua, February 1924, published in The Leatherneck, March 1928.  For the  accompanying article by Ex.-Sgt. F. F. Birnbaumer, see PC-DOCS and below.


Inventory of Documents

22 July 1919.  Martial Law in Honduras.  (NYT)

25 July 1919.  Prevent Honduras Revolt. Government's Prompt Action Stops Invasion by Gen. Leiva. (NYT)

29 July 1919.  Revolution Reported in Honduras.  (NYT)

31 July 1919.  Fighting Reported in Honduras Revolt. President Bertrand Said to Have Filled the Jails with Leaders, but Many Flee. Guerrilla Warfare Raging. More than 1,300 Hondurans Said to Have Crossed the Border, into Nicaragua.  (NYT)

1 Aug 1919.  Honduras Factions in Many Battles. Four Towns Reported to Have Been Captured by the Revolutionists. Gen. Gutierrez Routed. Col. Carbona, with Force of 800, Defeated by Government Forces – Col. Velasquez Killed.  (NYT)

1 Aug 1919.  Why They Fight Bertrand. Two Parties Say He Is Trying to Hand Over Office to Brother-in-Law.   (NYT)

2 Aug 1919.  Eastern Honduras in Revolution. Various Military Positions Said to Have Been Captured by Anti-Bertrand Partisans.  (NYT)

5 Aug 1919.  Revolt in Honduras. Three Departments and 3 Towns Break Away From Government.  (NYT)

13 Aug 1919.  Honduras Rebels Beaten. Reportedly Ready to Surrender Town if Amnesty Is Granted.   (NYT)

15 Aug 1919.  New Costa Rica President. Tinoco Escaped from Limon--Bertrand Claims Success.  (NYT)

27 Aug 1919.  Amnesty for Honduras Rebels.   (NYT)

11 Sept 1919.  President Forced to Quit Honduras. Revolution Overthrows Bertrand, Who Takes Ship for United States. American Warships Sent. State Department Expresses Hope That Candidates Will Now Provide for a Free Election.  (NYT)

12 Sept 1919.  American Marines Land In Honduras. Preserving Order and Protecting Lives and Property of Foreigners at Puerto Cortez. Bertrand Safe on Ship. Great Changes in Central America Expected to Follow President's Retirement.  (NYT)

14 Sept 1919.  Honduras Generally Quiet.   (NYT)

16 Sept 1919.  Honduran Rebels' Victor. Occupy La Esperanza, Pursuing the Ex-President's Forces.  (NYT)

23 Sept 1919.  Oppose Gutierrez's Rule. Dictatorship Is Said to Violate Compact with Diplomatic Corps.   (NYT)

27 Sept 1919.  Rebel Gains in Honduras. General Leiva Is Reported in Control of the Southern Districts.  (NYT)

30 Sept 1919.  Seeks Peace in Honduras. New Ministry Urges Membreno's Forces to Quit Hopeless Rebellion.   (NYT)

8 Oct 1919.  Tosta Backs Gutierrez. Nominates Him for President of Honduras. (NYT)

14 Jan 1920.  US Sec. Navy Telegrams  (RG80, Box 335)

2 Feb 1920.  From USS Cleveland via radio to OpNav (RG80, Box 335)

4 Feb 1920.  Start Revolt in Honduras. Rivals of Gutierrez Head Rising as He Becomes President. (NYT)

25 Feb 1920.  US Sec. State to Sec. Navy (RG80, Box 335)

26 Feb 1920.  USS Tacoma to Opnav on conditions in borderlands (RG45, Box 753)

27 Feb 1920.  Honduran Rebels Beaten. Formed in Nicaragua, It Is Said, Despite President's Promise.   (NYT)

29 Feb 1920.  Sack Honduran Towns. Rebels Have Obtained War Supplies By This Method. (NYT)

9 Mar 1920.  Rebels Near Nicaragua.  (LA Times)

26 Aug 1920.  Navy Sends Gunboat to Watch Honduras; Central American Unrest Causes Concern. (NYT)

11 Dec 1920.  Violent Earth Shocks. Southern Honduras and Western Nicaragua Severely Shaken. (NYT)

24 Aug 1921.  Emiliano Chamorro, Managua, to Charles Evans Hughes, US Sec. State, Washington, requesting arms (USDS 817.24/8)

24 Aug 1921.  Revolutionary force invaded Nicaragua from Honduras, US Sec. State to Sec. Navy Denby.  (RG80, Box 335)

27 Aug 1921.  Bands Invade Nicaragua. Troops Sent to Repel Them -- A Protest Made to Honduras.   (NYT)

8 Sept 1921.  Quell Nicaraguan Rising. Government Forces Drive Rebels Into Honduras -- 1,311 Captured. (NYT)

11 Sept 1921.  Nicaragua Demobilizes. Troops That Quelled Rebellion Are Quietly Returning Home.   (NYT)

11 Sept 1921.  Revolution in Honduras suppressed, Cmdr. Spec. Svc. Squadron to Opnav.  (RG80, Box 335)

24 Oct 1921.  State of War In Nicaragua. Government Proclaims It on Border -- Extends Martial Law Period.  (NYT)

13 Nov 1921.  Attack Nicaraguan Town. Revolutionists Beaten Off by Troops Guarding Somotillo. (NYT)

5 Dec 1921.  Request for investigation of Nicaragua-Honduras frontier conditions.  (RG80, Box 335)

19 Feb 1922.  Noticias de bandoleros en Cinco Pinos. (El Centroamericano)

17 March 1922.  Disturbances on the Nicaragua-Honduras border in the last eight months; C.O. Mardet, Managua, to Marcorps (RG80, Box 336)

22 March 1922.  On forced recruitment in Managua; letter from American Legation, Managua, to Cole (RG80, Box 335)

7 April 1922.  Noticias sobre la revolución de Honduras  (El Centroamericano)

17 April 1922.  Revolt Stirs Honduras. Serious Outbreak Reported Along the Nicaraguan Frontier.  (NYT)

22 April 1922.  La verdadera situación de Honduras.  (El Centroamericano)

12 May 1922.  Martines Funes Vuelve A Las Armadas.  (El Centroamericano)

19 May 1922.  Información veríica sobre lo que pasa en Honduras.  (El Centroamericano)

8 July 1922.  Movimientos en la frontera.  (El Centroamericano)

14 Aug 1922.  Nicaraguan Troops Nip a Revolution Started by Liberal Exiles in Two Cities.  (NYT)

18 Aug 1922.  Confer on Border Raids. Presidents of Three Central American Republics to Meet on Cruiser.   (NYT)

23 Aug 1922.  Pledge Peace Anew in Central America. Heads of Three Republics Meet on American Warship and Reaffirm Treaty. American Ministers There. Nicaragua, Honduras and Salvador Agree to Enforce Measures to Check Rebel Invasions.  (NYT)

3 Sept 1922.  Border Rebels Captured. Central American States Have Armies Out Against Them.  (NYT)

10 Sept 1922.  New Fight on Nicaraguan Frontier.   (NYT)

3 Feb 1923.  Pan Americans Not Arming. Only Two Nations Spend Nearly Half of Budget on Military.  (NYT)

28 Dec 1923.  Washington Repeats Warning to Honduras. Tells It the United States 'Regards With Disfavor' Any Attempt to Control Elections.  (NYT)

30 Dec 1923.  No Title. [Reports of Border Troubles Unfounded, Officials Say.]  (NYT)

6 Jan 1924.  Tropas hondureñas cerca de Somoto (El Centroamericano)

5 Feb 1924.  Honduran Rebels to Fight Dictator. Carias Opposes Gutierrez for Holding Presidency After National Elections Fail. Notes By Hughes Ignored. Other Governments Are Said to Have Urged in Vain That New Elections Be Held.   (NYT)

8 Feb 1924.  Emigrados en Ocotal  (El Centroamericano)

13 Feb 1924.  Revolución en Honduras  (El Centroamericano)

14 Feb 1924.  De Chinandega  (El Centroamericano)

15 Feb 1924.  Atacó la plaza de San Marcos (El Centroamericano)

18 Feb 1924.  Report of Visit to Honduran Frontier.  (Capt. T. Bourke, USMC to Sec. Navy, RG80, Box 336)

22 Feb 1924.  Noticias de la frontera norte y la guerra de Honduras (El Centroamericano)

24 March 1924.  Marines in Nicaragua, 1924. ("Letter from an Ex-Sergeant, USMC," The Leatherneck, March 1928)

28 Feb 1924.  Noticias de la revolución cariísta (El Centroamericano)

2 March 1924.  Another Warship Sent To Honduras. Admiral Doubles Marine Guard at Ceiba, Where American Citizen Has Been Killed. Rebels Besiege Capital. But Meanwhile Other Central American Countries Start a Move for Peace.  (NYT)

6 Mar 1924.  La candidatura Sacasa-Carazo Hurtado en los pueblos del Norte de Chinandega (El Centroamericano)

8 March 1924.  Lo que pasa en nuestra frontera norte (El Centroamericano)

19 March 1924.  La intervención americana en Honduras para poner fin á la anarquía que allá reina. (El Centroamericano)

21 March 1924.  Falsos informes, echados a rodar  (El Centroamericano)

25 March 1924.  Honduran Capital Expects A Battle. American Marines Patrol Neutral Zone Established In Tegucigalpa. Act At Ferrera's Request. This Rebel Commander Agrees Not to Fight in Streets Adjacent to American Legation.   (NYT)

27 March 1924.  Noticias de la frontera hondureña.  (El Centroamericano)

29 March 1924.  La actitud del pueblo de chinandega ante los asesinatos de nuestros hermanos en honduras. (El Centroamericano)

30 March 1924.  Rockefeller Foundation Trip to the Honduran Border. (Rockefeller Foundation Archives, NY)

2 April 1924.  Contrabandistas en Murra y Jalapa.  (El Centroamericano)

23 April 1924.  Espleluzantes informes sobre la suerte de nuestros compatriotas en Honduras. (El Centroamericano)

23 April 1924.  Lo que nos dijo un joven hondureño. (El Centroamericano)

2 May 1924.  El Dr. Corea y el asunto de las armas a Honduras. (El Centroamericano)

8 May 1924.  Horrible asesinato en Cinco Pinos.  (El Centroamericano)

15 May 1924.  Como fue tomado el pichaco  (El Centroamericano)

21 May 1924.  Amagos revolucionarios en la frontera norte.  (El Centroamericano)

1 June 1924.  Honduras al día. (El Centroamericano)

3 Aug 1924.  Honduran Revolt Plot Reported. (NYT)

5 Aug 1924.  Captures Honduran Town. Fonseca, Rebel, Is Operating Near Nicaraguan Frontier. (NYT)

8 Aug 1924.  Two Americans Slain in Honduras Revolt; War Minister Flees, Cabinet Reorganized. (NYT)

10 Sept 1924.  March On Tegucigalpa. Honduran Rebels Prepare to Attack Government Forces. (NYT)

9 Oct 1924.  Rebel Leader Wounded. Honduras Government Forces Claim Victories Over Ferrera. (NYT)

15 April 1925.  New Revolt in Honduras. General Ferrera Raises 300 Men--Martial Law Ordered. (NYT)

17 April 1925.  Nicaragua Acts to Quell Banditry. (NYT)

21 April 1925.  No Title.  (NYT)

21 April 1925.  Navy Lands 165 Men at Ceiba, Honduras, To Protect Americans as Revolt Spreads. (NYT)

22 April 1925.  Honduras Uprising Hits Two Sections. North Coast and Guatemalan Frontier Involved--Expect Government to Put Down Disorders. (NYT)

23 April 1925.  Navy Unit Quits Honduras. Cruiser Denver Remains Off Shore After Withdrawing Landing Party. (NYT)

25 June 1925.  New Army In Honduras. But it is Unknown Which Side War Minister's Force Favors.  (NYT)

30 June 1925.  Honduran Rebels Routed. Government Wins Battle Near Intibuca--Nicaragua Guards Frontier.  (NYT)

12 Aug 1925.  Honduran Army Reduced. Minister of War Reports Rebels Dispersed--Commerce Gains.  (NYT)

24 Aug 1925.  Honduras Protests to Nicaragua.  (NYT)

20 Aug 1926.  Revolutionary movements in Leon, Chinandega, Sierras around Managua. (USDS 817.00/3721)

21 Aug 1926.  Revolutionary movements continue. (USDS 817.00/3728)

25 Aug 1926.  First outbreak of revolution in West. (USDS 817.00/3769)

26 Aug 1926.  General Ferrera in Honduras. (USDS 817.00/3796)

28 Aug 1926.  Alcalde asesinado en Somoto. (La Noticia)

31 Aug 1926.  Combate en El Ocotal. (La Noticia)

1 Sept 1926.  Rebels defeated in Coseguina. (USDS 817.00/3745)

2 Sept 1926.  Nicaraguan Liberals organizing in La Union. (USDS 817.00/3747)

4 Sept 1926.  Political Situation at Corinto. (USDS 817.00/3868)

6 Sept 1926.  Conditions in the Liberal departments. (USDS 817.00/3759)

9 Sept 1926.  Batalla en Somotillo. (La Noticia)

2 Oct 1926.  Government forces victorious near Corinto. (USDS 817.00/3865)

5 Oct 1926.  Rebeldes en Macuelizo. (La Noticia)

20 Oct 1926.  El último combate de Somoto.  (La Noticia)

26 Oct 1926.  Se libró un combate cerca de la frontera. Somoto, amenzado por los revolucionarios.   (La Noticia)

2 Nov 1926.  Situation in Nicaraguan and Honduras. (USDS 817.00/3938)

3 Nov 1926.  Revolucionarios en Somotillo. (La Noticia)

4 Nov 1926.  Sangriento combate en El Ocotal. Quedaron 25 muertos en el campo de batalla. (First mention of Sandino in the press; La Noticia)

19 Nov 1926.  American Forces Ready To Compel Nicaraguan Peace.  (NYT)

28 Nov 1926.  Combates en Telpaneca y Somoto.  (La Noticia)

1 Dec 1926.  Revolucionarios en Somotillo. (La Noticia)

2 Dec 1926.  Noticias de Somotillo.  (La Noticia)

29 Dec 1926.  Por qué no hubo elecciones en Pueblo Nuevo. (La Noticia)

22 Feb 1927.  Diaz Now Asks America To Take Virtual Control of Nicaraguan Affairs. Alliance is Suggested. Or Supervision Similar to That Exercised in Cuba. (NYT)


The Documents .

22 July 1919.  Martial Law in Honduras.
SAN SALVADOR, Republic of Salvador, July 21.—The Government of Honduras has declared a state of siege to exist because of violence during the elections in progress there, … The Government, it was said, declared political enemies were disturbing public order and were threatening a revolution.


NYT, 22 July 1919


25 July 1919.   Prevent Honduras Revolt.  Government's Prompt Action Stops Invasion by Gen. Leiva.
SAN SALVADOR, July 21.—Prompt action by the Government of Honduras has prevented a threatened revolution … These dispatches reported that General Andres Leiva was preparing an invasion of Honduras through the Nicaraguan frontier, in cooperation with sympathizers in Honduras.

NYT, 25 July 1919


29 July 1919.   Revolution Reported in Honduras.
SAN SALVADOR, July 28.—A revolutionary movement headed by General Lopez Gutierrez, Presidential candidate, is reported today by the Press to have broken out in Honduras. The revolution was said to have been proclaimed in the Department of Pariso [El Paraíso]. Various encounters between rebel forces and the Government troops were said to have occurred on the Nicaraguan frontier.


NYT, 29 July 1919


31 July 1919.   Fighting Reported in Honduras Revolt. President Bertrand Said to Have Filled the Jails with Leaders, but Many Flee.  Guerrilla Warfare Raging.  More than 1,300 Hondurans Said to Have Crossed the Border, into Nicaragua.
SAN JUAN DEL SUR, Nicaragua, July 30.—President Bertrand of Honduras was reported today in dispatches received here to have imprisoned all the leaders of the parties headed by Vice President Membreno and General Lopez Gutierrez, as a result of a revolution proclaimed recently.
Prisons throughout the Republic of Honduras are full, according to these dispatches. Many prominent citizens are said to have taken refuge in the American Legation.
General Lopez Gutierrez, accompanied by 200 persons, is said to have escaped from Tegucigalpa and to have succeeded in repulsing Government troops. His supporters in the departments of Paraiso and Valle were reported to be carrying on guerrilla warfare.
Dr. Zuran, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Honduras, is a refugee in the American Legation at Tegucigalpa, while Dr. Lopez Padilla, former Honduras Minister to Nicaragua, and Dr. Saturnino Medal, once magistrate of the Cartago Court and a delegate to the Central American Peace Conference in 1907, have been imprisoned in Tegucigalpa in connection with the revolution.
Advices received over the only telegraph wire working south from Honduras today are to the effect that there was a serious encounter on Tuesday in the Department of the Valle between Government forces and rebels.
Another three hundred Honduran refugees are reported to have arrived in Nicaragua today and joined the more than one thousand citizens of that country who previously fled there.
The town of Danli, close to the Nicaraguan frontier, has been captured by revolutionists in Honduras, according to dispatches published here today. In the fighting Colonel Jacinto Velasquez, a leader of the Gutierrez party, was killed.
General Francisco Argenal, with 400 revolutionists, is reported to be within a few miles of Ocotepeque, in Western Honduras, preparing to attack it.
Nicaragua Denies Responsibility.
The Nicaraguan Legation today received a cablegram from President Chamorro of Nicaragua denying categorically recent reports in this country that the Honduran revolution had been started in Nicaragua.  The message stated that these reports are "absolutely false" and that the Government of Honduras had no complaint to make against the Nicaraguans. This is vouched for, it was stated, by the Honduran Charge d'Affaires in Managua, Dr. Jesus Ulloa.
Thousands of Honduras, according to the message, are fleeing from Honduras to Nicaragua, a movement which, it is asserted, the latter country cannot prevent because of the extent of the boundary and the smallness of the Nicaraguan army. Many of the fugitives, according to the dispatch, have had encounters with Honduras authorities, and when they reach Nicaraguan territory they are immediately gathered into concentration camps. The fugitives have up to the present time given no trouble to the Nicaraguan authorities, it is said, but the Government expresses the belief that no good can be expected of immigrants who not think of working, but enter for political reasons. As an example of the attitude of Nicaraguans, the arrest recently of the Honduran General Paguaga and his companions for having secretly left the Nicaraguan capital was cited.


NYT, 31 July 1919



1 August 1919.   Honduras Factions in Many Battles. Four Towns Reported to Have Been Captured by the Revolutionists. Gen. Gutierrez Routed. Col. Carbona, with Force of 800, Defeated by Government Forces – Col. Velasquez Killed.
SAN SALVADOR, July 21—Four towns in Honduras have been captured by the revolutionists, according to dispatches received here today, while Government troops have scored successes at three points.
General Lopez Gutierrez, one of the leaders of the revolution, was routed at Tupacenti, according to the Honduran Minister here, Señor Fortin. General Gutierrez was said to have sought refuge on El Bajuco Mountain, but his exact location is unknown.
Colonel Francisco Carbona, with a force of 800 men, was reported defeated yesterday by Government forces at Caballitos and Goascoran. At Goascoran Colonel Juan Jacinto Velasquez was killed.
The four towns taken by the revolutionary forces, according to advices here, were Comayagua, Gracias, Camasca, and Marcaja. In the Department of Atlantida, Colonels Sefavino Delgado and Eduardo Gillin were reported to have taken up arms.
In the fighting at Danli, which dispatches yesterday reported the revolutionists had taken, there were a number of killed and wounded. Much livestock and material that was taken had to be abandoned.


NYT, 1 August 1919


1 August 1919.   Why They Fight Bertrand. Two Parties Say He Is Trying to Hand Over Office to Brother-in-Law.
Rafael Helidoro Valle, President of the Honduras Patriotic Union, representing the Honduras opposition party in New Orleans, explains the struggle in Honduras in a letter to THE TIMES, in which he says:
"Two strong parties are steadily opposed to President Bertrand's policy. He is trying with all his power to win for his brother-in-law, Nazario Soriano, the nomination for the next presidential term. The elections will be held in October next. He is opposed by the National Democratic Party, led by the Vice President, Dr. Alberto Membreño, and the Constitutional Democratic Party, headed by General Rafael Lopez Gutierrez. Bertrand, to assure his dynastic rule, hurriedly cabled to his brother-in-law, who was Consul General at New Orleans, La., to go back home, and to a Salvadoran Colonel, who was in charge of the Consulate at New York City and was appointed Minister of War.
"To work out his plans Bertrand has maintained martial law up to date, on the pretext that the war with Germany is still on. Bertrand has dismissed some high officers of his Government because they have not agreed with his capricious policy and he is systematically operating upon military commanders, school teachers, and newspapermen. The censorship on the press has been so strict that only the papers printing Soriano propaganda did not have to send page proofs to the Government.
"Many times Dr. Valladares, the leading public writer, has been thrown in jail because of his defiant attitude toward the President. Other journalists, like Juan A. Sotto-Mayor, Matias Oviedo, Hernán Rosales, and Confucio Montes de Oca, have been expelled from the country; and also many prominent citizens, such as General Andres Leiva, Dr. Manuel L. Aguilar, Colonel Vicente Narvaez, Dr. Eduardo Guillen, Dr. Cayetano Bonilla and his son, and General Fernando Diaz Zelaya. A very smart Chief of Police, who worked under Villa's regime, Teofilo Castillo Corzo, has organized a splendid secret service which furnishes all political information available. All high-minded men of Honduras are bitterly fighting Bertrand."


NYT, 1 August 1919


2 August 1919.   Eastern Honduras in Revolution.  Various Military Positions Said to Have Been Captured by Anti-Bertrand Partisans.
SAN SALVADOR, Aug. 1.—The eastern part of Honduras has risen in revolt against the Government of President Bertrand, according to a report from General Ferrera at Marcala, Honduras, received here today by the Diario del Salvador. The dispatch said various military positions had fallen into the hands of the revolutionists.
Official Honduran dispatches, however, said there was no confirmation of the capture of Comayagua, Nacaome, Branecina, Caridad, and Gracias by the revolutionists, but it was stated that an outbreak had occurred at the artillery school at Tegucigalpa and that La Esperanza was captured and held for a few days by Colonel Tota [Tosta?].
The official reports from Honduras asserted that General Lopez Gutierrez, after being defeated by Government forces under Colonel Galindo, had taken refuge on Nicaraguan territory. La Esperanza was reported to be surrounded by a large Government force under General Calixto Marin.


NYT, 2 August 1919


5 August 1919.   Revolt in Honduras.  Three Departments and 3 Towns Break Away From Government.
SAN SALVADOR, Republic of Salvador, Aug. 3.—The Departments of Gracias, Comayagua, and Choluteca, and the towns of Ocotepeque, Santa Rosa, and Yuscaran, in Honduras, were reported today in dispatches published here to have taken up arms against the Government of President Bertrand in the revolutionary movement headed by General Lopez Gutierrez.
The city of Intibuoa was said to have declared Dr. Bertrand an outlaw.


NYT, 5 August 1919


13 August 1919.  Honduras Rebels Beaten.  Reportedly Ready to Surrender Town if Amnesty Is Granted.
SAN SALVADOR, Aug. 12.—Honduras revolutionists, according to official reports received today from Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras, after being defeated by Government forces under Colonel Santos Fortin at Goascoran, were pursued and routed at Mount Laringlera and later driven out of Guarita. The revolutionists were said to have fled at the first shots, so that it was difficult to capture any of them. The rebels were said to have looted the districts through which they passed.
Proposed operations against La Esperanza, which the rebels are holding, were said to have been delayed while the Government completes preparations for an enveloping movement.
The rebels at La Esperanza, according to an offer made today by a Bishop from Santa Rosa Cepano to President Bertrand, will lay down their arms if guaranteed unconditional amnesty.
A revolutionary dispatch reported General Vicente Tosta had defeated Government forces at Toro and that the latter were fleeing in disorder.


NYT, 13 August 1919


15 August 1919.   New Costa Rica President.  Tinoco Escaped from Limon--Bertrand Claims Success.
SAN SALVADOR, Aug. 14.—President Bertrand of Honduras has informed the Honduran Minister in San Salvador that the Honduran troops have inflicted a defeat on the rebels at La Esperanza and are following them in retreat.
A dispatch received from Managua, Nicaragua, announces that President Tinoco of Costa Rica, in leaving the country, escaped the vigilance of American ships and embarked at the port of Limon.
The dispatch adds that the revolution in Costa Rica is spreading rapidly in the interior of the republic. Julio Acosta has been named Provisional President of the republic. He has designated Francisco Aguilar Barquero to arrange the holding of free elections.


NYT, 15 August 1919


27 August 1919.   Amnesty for Honduras Rebels.
SAN SALVADOR, Aug. 15.—The revolution in Honduras has been put down, according to advices received here from official sources in that country. The Minister of Government of Honduras has sent a circular to the heads of the different departmental governments granting amnesty to all revolutionists and permitting them to return to their homes.


NYT, 27 August 1919


11 September 1919.   President Forced to Quit Honduras. Revolution Overthrows Bertrand, Who Takes Ship for United States. American Warships Sent. State Department Expresses Hope That Candidates Will Now Provide for a Free Election.
Special to The New York Times.
WASHINGTON, Sept. 10.—President Bertrand of Honduras has resigned and is en route to the United States after having deposited the executive power in the hands of a Council of Ministers.
His resignation followed the arrival of the revolutionists at the gates of the capital and the receipt of a message by President Bertrand from the United States Government demanding that all the constitutional guarantees of the Government should be respected. President Bertrand protested to the State Department against the action of this Government, but his position was such that there was no other course for him but to resign.
Five days ago the Honduran rebels were reported to be within five miles of the capital, Tegucigalpa, in sufficient force to capture the city, after having already taken the towns of La Ceiba, Tela, Omoa, and Puerto Cortez, important places on the North or Atlantic Coast.
American citizens at La Ceiba recently appealed for protection and the United States Government sent the cruiser Cleveland to that port to protect them.
Instead of depositing the executive power with the officials designated by the Honduras Constitution, President Bertrand gave it over to members of the Cabinet which is made up of adherents of Nazario Soriano, brother-in-law of Bertrand and the latter's candidate for the Presidency. The Constitution required that the power be assigned to First Designado Bogran or to Second Designado Cordova.
In announcing the departure of President Bertrand the State Department expressed the hope that "the various candidates for the presidency will be able to hold a conference and to arrange mutually satisfying safeguards for the freedom of the coming elections."
The announcement issued by Acting Secretary of State Phillips was as follows:
"The Department has been informed by the American Legation at Tegucigalpa that on the night of Sept. 8 President Bertrand deposited the executive power in the hands of a council of Ministers and left for Amapala, under the escort of members of the Diplomatic Corps and of a United States naval officer, to take passage for the United States on the steamer San José.
"The legation at the same time informed the department that the Honduran Ministers of War, of Foreign Affairs, of Public Instruction, and of Public Works had resigned and that the Governor of Tegucigalpa, Santiago Meza Calix, has been appointed Minister of War; Jesus Bendana, Minister of Foreign Affairs; Federico Smith, Minister of Public Instruction, and Hector Valenzuela, Minister of Public Works.
"It is understood that it has been agreed to arrange an immediate truce with General Lopez Gutierrez and other revolutionary leaders. It is stated that General Lopez Gutierrez will be asked to take command of all the troops in Tegucigalpa.
"The revolutionary movement which has culminated in the above mentioned facts was started by General Lopez Gutierrez, who was one of the candidates for the Presidency at the elections to be held next month. He asserted that the measures taken by President Bertrand made it impossible to hold a free election. The candidate favored by President Bertrand was his brother-in-law, Soriano. A third candidate for the President of Honduras is Membreno, who, it is understood, is now in Guatemala.
"It is to be hoped that the various candidates for the Presidency will be able to hold a conference and to arrange mutually satisfying safeguards for the freedom of the coming elections. If this were to be done revolutionary activities would come to an end and an opportunity be given to the people of Honduras to express their will in the coming elections."
While in Washington Membreno told State Department officials that the opposition element in Honduras, composed of those hostile to President Bertrand, was working for strict adherence to the constitution and laws of the country.


NYT, 11 September 1919


12 September 1919.   American Marines Land In Honduras.  Preserving Order and Protecting Lives and Property of Foreigners at Puerto Cortez.  Bertrand Safe on Ship. Great Changes in Central America Expected to Follow President's Retirement.
Special to The New York Times.
WASHINGTON, Sept. 11.—The change of government in Honduras has resulted in unsettled conditions in that republic, according to today's advices to the State Department, accompanied by looting and rioting, with the result that a small American naval force was landed from the cruiser Cleveland at Puerto Cortez to preserve order and protect the lives and property of foreigners there.
"This action," the State Department announced, "was taken as a result of a conference between the American, British, Danish, Italian, and Spanish Consuls with the local Honduran military commanders. Minister Jones reports from Tegucigalpa that efforts are being made to bring about a truce between the contending forces, and it would seem that normal and orderly conditions will soon be restored. The landing party from the Cleveland will return to the ship as soon as the local authorities are able to resume control."
An unofficial report reached the State Department that a British warship was expected at Trujillo, Honduras, this morning. The department has also been advised that President Bertrand of Honduras and Nazario Soriano, his brother-in-law, who is a Presidential candidate, and their party, embracing members of their families, who left Tegucigalpa under diplomatic and naval escort as a result of the revolutionary activities in Honduras, arrived at San Lorenzo safely at 5 o'clock yesterday morning and immediately embarked for Amapala, to take passage for the United States on the steamer San Jose. President Bertrand, as announced yesterday, deposited the executive power in the hands of the Council of Ministers on Sept. 8.
The retirement of President Bertrand will have a far-reaching effect upon the Central American and Mexican situations, according to officials here, and representative men from all parts of Central America. Three important results specifically cited as probably immediate developments are:
1. The "de-Mexicanization" of Latin America.
2. The collapse of the movement to unite Honduras and Salvador.
3. A serious situation in Salvador that may result in a state of unrest borderin upon revolution, unless President Jorge Melendez exhibits prompt and effective control of the country, which has not yet manifested. . . .


NYT, 12 September 1919


14 September 1919.   Honduras Generally Quiet.
WASHINGTON, Sept. 18.—Advices to the State Department today from Tegucigalpa reported the general situation in Honduras quiet, although some revolutionary disorders were continuing on the north coast.


NYT, 14 September 1919


16 September 1919.   Honduran Rebels' Victor.  Occupy La Esperanza, Pursuing the Ex-President's Forces.

SAN SALVADOR, Republic of Salvdor, Sept. 14.—Revolutionary forces under Generals Diaz and Ferrera have occupied La Esperanza, capital of the Intibuca Department, Honduras, after a fight with troops loyal to former President Francisco Bertrand, according to advices received here from Honduras. The Bertrandista troops, under command of General Theofilo Carcamo, were pursued by the revolutionaries, the advices stated.
Dr. Francisco Bogran has been named Provisional President of Honduras, pending the Presidential election.
T. Sambola Jones, United States Minister at Tegucigalpa, is reported to have sent a rather strong note to the revolutionary leaders of Honduras, asking them to concentrate their forces in Tegucigalpa under the leadership of General Lopez Gutierrez and calling upon the "patriotic citizens of Honduras" to unite in support of the Government.


NYT, 16 September 1919


23 September 1919.   Oppose Gutierrez's Rule.  Dictatorship Is Said to Violate Compact with Diplomatic Corps.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Sept. 22.—In establishing a military dictatorship at Tegucigalpa, General Rafael Gutierrez, it is declared in Honduran advices received here, is said to have violated a compact he had made with the Diplomatic Corps in the Honduran capital. Many important towns in Honduras, including Amapala and Choluteca, the reports state, have refused to recognize the Gutierrez dictatorship.
So far the Council of Ministers, to whom Dr. Francisco Bertrand handed over the Presidency when he left Honduras some time ago, has failed to deliver the reins of government to Dr. Francisco Bogran, the President-designate.


NYT, 23 September 1919


27 September 1919.   Rebel Gains in Honduras.  General Leiva Is Reported in Control of the Southern Districts.
SAN SALVADOR, Sept. 25.—Dr. Alberto Membreno, Vice President of Honduras, who left Guatemala City some time ago for Tegucigalpa, preparatory to claiming the office of President of Honduras, has reached San Juan, a short distance north of the Salvadorean border, and has established headquarters there.
Dispatches received here from different sources in Honduras say that General Andres Leiva, the rebel leader, has captured important towns of Choluteca from the Gutierrez forces and now has complete control of the southern sections of Honduras.


NYT, 27 September 1919


30 September 1919.   Seeks Peace in Honduras.  New Ministry Urges Membreno's Forces to Quit Hopeless Rebellion.
SAN SALVADOR, Sept. 29.—(Associated Press)—Don Melecio Alvarado, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the new Government of Honduras, has sent a dispatch to Dr. Alberto Membreno, Vice President of Honduras, and candidate for the Presidency of that country, calling upon Dr. Membreno to disavow the action of his adherents in taking up arms against the actual Government. The dispatch is addressed to Dr. Membreno as residing in Guatemala, although a recent dispatch said that he had reached San Juan, a short distance north of the border of Salvador, on his way to Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras.
Don Alvarado appeals to Dr. Membreno not to prolong an unprofitable fight which will continue to stain the country with blood, because guarantees have been given to secure equal treatment for all candidates in future elections. Should the partisans of Membreno not lay down their arms, Don Alvarado declares that they and their leader will be held responsible for all misfortunes which may happen in Honduras.
General Tosta, at the head of 5,000 men, has arrived at Seguatepeque, fifty miles northwest of Tegucigalpa, on his way to the capital.


NYT, 30 September 1919


8 October 1919.   Tosta Backs Gutierrez.  Nominates Him for President of Honduras.
SAN SALVADOR, Salvador, Oct. 6.—General Vicente Tosta, former revolutionary leader, and now Minister of War in Honduras, has further complicated the political situation by nominating General Rafael Lopez Gutierrez as a candidate for the Presidency of Honduras, according to advices received today.
General Gutierrez, according to a Nicaraguan dispatch Sept. 18, had entered the Honduran capital, but considerable opposition to him developed following the charge that he was attempting the establishment of a dictatorship, and this fact was given by the followers of Dr. Alberto Membreno, Vice President of Honduras and candidate for the Presidency, for refusal to lay down their arms.
Dr. Membreno was imprisoned by President Bertrand in July last, but later left the country, and on Sept. 19 announced that he was returning to Honduras to be a candidate for the Presidency.
General Gutierrez was one of the revolutionary leaders whose success caused the then President Bertrand to flee the country, leaving control of Honduras to the Council of Ministers pending the arrival of Dr. Francisco Bogran to assume the Presidency.


NYT, 8 October 1919


14 January 1920.  US Sec. Navy Telegrams.

I have the honor to inform you that there is considerable uneasiness in the minds of the Government officials of Honduras concerning a revolution which is reported to be fomented on Nicaraguan territory . . .


R. Lansing to Sec. State, 14 Jan. 1920, USDS 815.00.2145


2 February 1920.   From USS Cleveland via radio to OpNav.
The inauguration of General Gutierrez as President of Honduras will take place February 1. The country is generally quiet . . . In the vicinity of disputed territory along Nicaraguan border Honduras malcontents have caused some disturbance . . . would cease if Nicaragua took decided stand against trouble makers who operate against the border from Nicaragua. . . .


USS Cleveland via radio to Opnav, RG80, Box 335, 2 Feb. 1920


4 February 1920.   Start Revolt in Honduras.  Rivals of Gutierrez Head Rising as He Becomes President.
MANAGUA, Feb. 3.—There has been a fresh revolutionary outbreak in Honduras, according to advices received today.
The revolutionists, who are headed by Don Alberto Membreno, former Vice President of Honduras, and Dr. Nazario Soriano, have suffered a heavy defeat at the hands of the Government forces and are retiring toward the Nicaraguan frontier.
The last revolutionary outbreak in Honduras was started by General Gutierrez, who has just been inaugurated as President, and resulted in the overthrow of President Bertrand on Sept. 8 last. Bertrand fled from the country, together with his brother-in-law, Dr. Nazario Soriano, who has been supported by Bertrand as his successor to the Presidency.
Don Alberto Membreno, who with Soriano is mentioned as leading the present revolution, was a candidate against General Gutierrez in the election last October, but received only a small vote. Membreno was Vice President during Bertrand's tenure of office, and was imprisoned by the latter in July last. Later he left the country, returning to become a candidate for the Presidency.


NYT, 4 February 1920


25 February 1920.   Sec. State to Sec. Navy.
I have the honor to inform you that I am in receipt of information which leads me to believe that revolutionary activities against the present government of Honduras are being conducted in the territory of Nicaragua adjacent to the international boundary . . . such reports are being constantly received.


Acting Sec. State to Sec. Navy, 25 Feb. 1920, RG80, Box 335, 715.1715/130


26 February 1920.   USS Tacoma to Opnav on Nicaragua-Honduras Border Troubles, 26 February 1920.

To:   Opnav
1021 Honduras aroused by recent raids by rebels from Nicaraguan territory. Government requested our acting Minister to inform the United States that it now learns that the rebels invading Honduras have been armed by Nicaragua and to inquire attitude our State Department in case revolution in Nicaragua concurs with war declared by Honduras. Telephone communications with TEGUCIGALPA temporarily interrupted however interviewed General Christmas, an American citizen, February 20th who had left Tegucigalpa February 20th and martial law declared Tegucigalpa February 19 presumably in order to mobilized forces. Reported Honduran rebels from Nicaragua had captured three towns and Government put Municipal authorities in which located under martial law.  Troops being mobilized but no disorder Tegucigalpa but some unrest. About twenty persons imprisoned February 20th at Amapala apparently because of political views including former United States consular Agent Zelaya. Christmas thinks present revolution is not formidable but regards the Nicaraguan menace serious.


USS Tacoma to Opnav, 26 February 1920, RG45, Box 753, File 7


27 February 1920.   Honduran Rebels Beaten. Formed in Nicaragua, It Is Said, Despite President's Promise.

SAN SALVADOR, Feb. 25.—An official despatch from Tegucigalpa says that the Honduran Government, relying on the promises of President Chamorro of Nicaragua that he would not permit the enemies of the present government of Honduras to obtain arms on Nicaraguan territory, disbanded its troops, leaving only small garrisons in the departmental capitals.
Notwithstanding President Chamorro's assurances, the despatch adds, rebels crossed the boundary between Nicaragua and Honduras and captured Danli, seventeen miles north of the Nicaraguan frontier line. They were driven out of the town by a strong, well-armed force sent to Danli by the Honduran Government, according to the despatch.


NYT, 27 February 1920


29 February 1920.   Sack Honduran Towns.  Rebels Have Obtained War Supplies By This Method.
SAN SALVADOR, Feb. 28.—The revolutionary forces in Honduras have the rebels were taken from these towns [sic], according to an official dispatch, from Tegucigalpa, the Honduran capital, and the war supplies now in the hands of the Rebels were taken from these towns.
The revolutionists have not announced any program, nor have they proclaimed any candidate for the Presidency of the Republic, the dispatch says.


NYT, 29 February 1920


9 March 1920.   Rebels Near Nicaragua.
MEXICO CITY, March 8.— . . .
REBELS NEAR NICARAGUA. It is stated that rebels have taken refuge near the Nicaraguan border.  The recipient of the news, whose name is not given by El Universal [Tegucigalpa], is said to be a former Honduran journalist in close touch with conditions in that country.
SAN SALVADOR (Republic of Salvador) March 8.—A dispatch from Tegucigalpa says as the Honduran revolutionary forces have been dispersed and have fled into Nicaragua, the government of Honduras has set at liberty all political prisoners.


Los Angeles Times, 9 March 1920


26 August 1920.   Navy Sends Gunboat to Watch Honduras; Central American Unrest Causes Concern.
WASHINGTON, Aug. 25 (Associated Press).—Announcement today that the gunboat Sacramento had been ordered to La Ceiba, Honduras, to assure protection of American interests if necessary revealed that officials here have been watching with growing concern developing revolutionary movements in several Central American countries.
While the situation in each republic is local, political unrest in Guatemala as well as Honduras is known to be viewed here as serious, interwoven as it seems to be in each country with the so-called unionist movement in all Central American republics. This movement is said to have had its origin in Mexico during the Carranza regime. It contemplates a federation of all Latin-American republics.
Advices of official and private character from Central American cities have indicated this unrest for some weeks. No comment was made by State Department officials, however, beyond the explanation that the Sacramento . . .


NYT, 26 August 1920


11 December 1920.   Violent Earth Shocks.  Southern Honduras and Western Nicaragua Severely Shaken.
SAN SALVADOR, Republic of Salvador, Dec. 10.—Terrific earthquakes have occurred in Choluteca, Southern Honduras, according to reports received here today, but details are lacking.
Very violent shocks were also felt on Wednesday in Chinandega and Corinto, Western Nicaragua, twenty-five earth tremors shaking Corinto.
The loss of life and extent of the damage caused by the earthquake is not known.


NYT, 11 December 1920


24 August 1921.   Emiliano Chamorro to US Sec. State, Requesting Arms.
24 de Agosto de 1921
Excelentísimo Señor Secretario de Estado.
Don Charles E. Hughes,
Departamento de Estado
Washington, D.C.
Excelentísimo Señor:
Con motivo de una invasión del territorio nicaraguense, por el lado de la frontera con la República de Honduras, compuesta en su mayor parte de hondureños y de algunos nicaraguenses, fomentada por el Gobierno de Honduras y por algunos de los otros Gobiernos de las repúblicas de Centro América, según tengo aviso de mi Gobierno, paso a manifestar a V. E. lo siguiente: . . .
. . . mi Gobierno desea que el Gobierno de V. E. le provea, de sus almacenes de guerra sobrantes de la guera mundial, para pagarlos conforme al arreglo que se convenga, del armamento que ya no tenga en uso, lo que a continuación se expresa:
Cinco mil rifles
Tres milliones de cartuchos para rifles
25 ametralladoras
250 mil tiras para ametralladoras
2 aeroplanos militares con sus correspondientes dotación de parque y sus partes de repuestos indispensables. . . .
/s/ Emiliano Chamorro


Emiliano Chamorro, Managua, to Charles Evans Hughes, US Sec. State, Washington, 24 August 1921, USDS 817.24/8


24 August 1921.   Revolutionary force invaded Nicaragua from Honduras.
Secretary of State C. E. Hughes to Secretary of the Navy E. Denby.
The Department today received a cable . . . stating that a revolutionary force of between 400 and 600 men has invaded Nicaragua from Honduras and that an attempt is apparently going to be made by a small band of Nicaraguan revolutionists in Costa Rica to invade Nicaragua from that Republic.


US Sec. State Hughes to Sec. Navy Denby, 24 August 1921, RG80, Box 335


27 August 1921.   Bands Invade Nicaragua.  Troops Sent to Repel Them -- A Protest Made to Honduras.

SAN SALVADOR, Aug. 26.—Armed bands have invaded Nicaraguan territory from across the Honduran frontier and have taken control of the villages of Limay and Somoto, not far from the Pacific coast, says an official dispatch from Managua.
Nicaraguan forces have been sent to repel the invaders, and a protest has been sent to Honduras, it is said.


NYT, 27 August 1921


8 September 1921.   Quell Nicaraguan Rising. Government Forces Drive Rebels Into Honduras -- 1,311 Captured.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Sept. 7.—Prompt action by the Nicaraguan Government in sending 3,000 well-equipped troops to the Honduran frontier has completely quelled a revolutionary uprising there. The revolutionists had captured several small villages, but were forced to flee into Honduras, where General Cardona of the Honduran army has captured 5 Generals, 17 Colonels, 36 Captains, 45 Lieutenants and 1,208 soldiers.
It is declared that if the revolution had not been promptly suppressed it would eventually have involved several Central American republics.


NYT, 8 September 1921


11 September 1921.   Nicaragua Demobilizes.Troops That Quelled Rebellion Are Quietly Returning Home.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Sept. 10 (Associated Press).—The demobilization of the Nicaraguan troops which recently quelled the revolutionary uprising on the Honduran frontier has been rapid. The troops have been paid and are returning quietly to peaceful occupations.
Nicaragua and Honduras will form a mixed commission, composed probably of two prominent military men from each country, with ample power to ascertain the responsibility for and causes of the recent disturbances near the boundary line, which, if not promptly quelled, it is believed, would have resulted in a disastrous war involving several of the Central American republics.


NYT, 11 September 1921


11 September 1921.   Revolution in Honduras Suppressed.

Commander, Special Service Squadron Atlantic to Opnav: CO USS Cleveland reports as follows Sept. 9:  The revolution in Honduras has been wholly suppressed and the Honduran army has been withdrawn from the Nicaraguan boundary. The Nicaraguan forces have been disbanded and everything is quiet in Nicaragua.


Cmdr. Spec. Svc. Squadron to Opnav, 11 September 1921, RG80, Box 335


24 October 1921.   State of War In Nicaragua. Government Proclaims It on Border -- Extends Martial Law Period.

MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Oct. 23.—The Government yesterday issued a proclamation declaring martial law to continue through the entire country for another sixty days and proclaiming the existence of a state of war in five northwestern departments, three of which border on Honduras.
Government officials have information that after the present small attacks across the Honduran boundary have harassed Nicaragua a large and serious revolutionary movement is planned for November. Financial measures to meet the military situation are being arranged, and 1,500 troops are now in the field, mostly along the Honduran border, to repel the movements.


NYT, 24 October 1921


13 November 1921.   Attack Nicaraguan Town.  Revolutionists Beaten Off by Troops Guarding Somotillo.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Nov. 12.—Another outbreak by revolutionaries took place at 3 o'clock yesterday morning, when the town of Somotillo, on the Honduran frontier, was assaulted by an armed force. After an hour of fighting the attack was repelled by Nicaraguan military units stationed there.
Several revolutionary uprisings in Nicaragua have occurred in the last three months. The latest one took place on Oct. 14, in the department of Neuva [Nueva] Segovia, near the Honduran frontier. Government forces, after a five-hour engagement with the revolutionists, succeeded in dispersing them.
This led to the Government renewing the state of martial law throughout the country for another sixty days and proclaiming the existence of a state of war in five northwestern departments, three of which border on Honduras.


NYT, 13 November 1921


5 December 1921.   Request for Investigation of Nicaragua-Honduras Frontier Conditions.

Headquarters, USMC, Washington, to CO Marine Detachment, Managua, via American Legation, Managua. December 5, 1921.

State Department . . . desires an investigation of political situation in northwestern Nicaragua particularly the district along the frontier between Nicaraguan and Honduras, where recent disturbances have occurred. Detail officer and suitable escort for purpose. Return trip through southern portion of Honduras. Both Governments have given permission for such an investigation and will extend every facility . . . will ascertain the causes and seriousness of outbreaks . . . Information especially desired tending to show participation of persons outside of Nicaragua in the organization of armed force, side arms only to be worn. On return trip through Honduran territory note activities prejudicial to peace of Nicaragua which may be evident in Honduran towns along border.  Believed military authorities of Honduras in this border district were acting under instructions from Minister of War fomenting these outbreaks in Nicaragua. . . .


RG80, Box 335, File 7418 (80) to (80-27:5), 5 Dec. 1921


17 March 1922.   Disturbances on the Nicaragua-Honduras border in the last eight months.
Message from Lt. Tracy's Confidential Report on Political Conditions in Nicaragua and Honduras.
American personnel and property have been respected by governmental forces during disturbances on Nicaraguan and Honduran Border in the last eight months. In Honduras foreign property has been either taken or destroyed in most part by government forces and claims are unadjusted. In affair of August 22 and 29, 1921 at La Grecia Mines, Nicaragua, most Nicaraguans who are still in Limay, Nicaragua, have been brought to justice. One of the leaders of this affair, Concepcion Peralta, Honduras, is now an officer in the Presidential Guards at Tegucigalpa. This is typical of inaction of both governments in regard to border raids. Nicaraguan forces on border are only partially paid and act like an armed mob. They wear no uniform or insignia. Honduran Government forces wear uniform in most cases, but are drunken and undisciplined. General Mendoza, who commands at San Marcos, Honduras, is insulted alike by men and officers and under conditions no action is taken or possible. Revolutionary movement is liable to assume serious proportion at any time and it is popular . . .


C.O. Mardet, Managua, to Marcorps, RG80, Box 336/7418


19 February 1922.   Noticias de bandoleros en Cinco Pinos.
Por los pueblos de Cinco Pinos y San Francisco de Cuajiniquilapa dicese que han aparecido unas cuadrillas de bandoleros.


El Centroamericano, León, 19 February 1922


22 March 1922.   Letter from American Legation, Managua, to Cole.

My dear Cole:
I am enclosing a letter on conditions here which seem a bit out of my line, but which has been inspired by what seems to be the need of informing the Department of conditions here. . . .
The country is poor as Job's turkey. A number of travelling men I have spoken to say that in other countries of Central America they can collect their debts, in Managua there is nothing doing. Every now and then a number of poor devils are arrested in the night and made soldiers, "recruiting" it is called, sent to the Honduran border and come back clamoring for pay when there is no pay. . . .


American Legation, Managua, to Cole, 7 March 1922, RG80, Box 335, 7418
(Note: author not recorded when document copied)


7 April 1922.   Noticias sobre la revolución de Honduras.
Los revolucionarios hondureños han vuelto a invadir el territorio de la hermana república, después del fracaso de El Triunfo, en donde fueron derrotados por el Gral. Carona, dejando los revolucionarios entre otros muertos al Gral. Ramón Turcios. Mas, volvieron a reorganizarse en San Francisco de Quajiniquilapa, que queda a poca distancia de la frontera, en número como de 500, todos ellos armados y disponiendo de una ametralladora y se preparaban, cuando nuestro informante salió del pueblo mencionado para volver a invadir al mando de los cabecillas Cajina, Manzanares y otros más.
Dios salve a Honduras!


El Centroamericano, León, 7 April 1922


17 April 1922.   Revolt Stirs Honduras.  Serious Outbreak Reported Along the Nicaraguan Frontier.
SAN SALVADOR, April 16.—Unofficial advices from Honduras are that a revolution of serious proportions is in progress at various points in Honduras territory, along the Nicaraguan frontier.


NYT, 17 April 1922


22 April 1922.   La verdadera situación de Honduras.
En la mañana de ayer tuvimos el gusto de saludar en la estación del ferrocarril a nuestro amigo Salomón Sánchez Herrera, quien regresa de la vecina república del Norte, habiendo salido de Tegucigalpa el martes de la presente semana.
A nuestras preguntas sobre la situación de aquel país nos dio los siguientes datos:
El movimiento revolucionario estalló en el Departamento de La Esperanza a las 3 am. del 4 del corriente, en número como de 300 hombres, acaudillados por el Gral. Gerónimo Ferrera, no pudiento tomar los cuarteles y sufriendo como 25 bajas. Las fuerzas del Gobierno tuvieron 3 bajas entre éllas la de un Teniente Cisnernos, hermano del Gral Cisneros defensor d' aquella plaza. Con tal motivo el Congreso decreto el estado de sitio en la República. En Lauterinque, lugar fronterizo a El Salvador, hubo un combate el lunes próximo pasado, en el que las fuerzas del Gobierno al mando de los jefes Dr. Vicente Mejía Colindres, Gral, Francisco Cardona y el Gral. Tosta, batieron completamente a los revolucionarios, haciéndolos refugiarse en El Salvador. En La Esperanza se batió a favor del Gobierno el conocido Gran nicaragüense dn. Pascasio Bermúdez.
El Dr. Carlos Lagos, Ministro de la Guerra de aquel país, hizo movilizar 5 000 hombres, inmediatamente que estalló el movimiento, haciendo salir las fuerzas y los elementos bélicos de la Capital, al lugar de los sucessos en autos y autocamiones.
La situación económica en Honduras no es nada halagüeña, pues si bien los salarios son altos, el precio de los artículos de primera necesidad es muy subido y no están al alcance del pueblo en general. Sólo en la Costa Norte la vida es ventajosa, más empieza ésta a verse atestada por miles de nicaragüenses y salvadoreños, que han hecho bajar los salarios y abarrotarse los brazos.
El Gral. López Gutiérrez, ya ocupa la nueva mansion presidencial, frente al río, que divide la capital de Comayagüela.
Su regreso de Nicaragua lo hizo Sánchez en la gasolina "El Cisne", y cuando salió de Tegucigalpa hacía tres días que había regresado de Guatemala el Gral. Felipe Neri Fernández.
Hasta aquí nuestra corta entrevista con el estimable compatriota a quien agradecemos los informes anteriores que nos suministro, deseándole toda clase de felicidad en el suelo nativo.


El Centroamericano, León, 22 April 1922


12 May 1922.   Martines Funes Vuelve A Las Armadas.
Tuvimos ayer informes fidedignos que el Gral. Martínez Funes a la cabeza de 200 hombres, más o menos armados, salió del pueblo de San Pedro, que queda sobre la guardaraya y como a 6 leguas de Somotillo, rumbo a Las Manos, población hondureña cercana al Ocotal, con el intento de tomarla, cosa que hasta la hora no sabemos si lo haya dejado hacerlo el Gral. Cardona que con numerosas fuerzas, tiene su cuartel general en San Marcos de Colón.
Los revolucionarios parece que tienen orden de no prestar acción, poniéndose a buen recaudo en territorio nicaragüense cuando se ven en peligro de ser destruidos. ¿Haran esto siempre o consentirá el Gobierno de Honduras en que siga este juego que tanto daño le hace?
Quien sabe; todo depende de medida de su paciencia.


El Centroamericano, León, 12 May 1922


19 May 1922.   Información verídica sobre lo que pasa en Honduras.
Persona que acaba de venir de nuestra vecina del Norte nos ha dado los siguientes informes: que Choluteca está actualmente bajo el mando directo del General Ramos; que reina relativa tranquilidad y que el movimiento revolucionario no es tomado casi en cuenta, pues o presenta acción y sólo se dedica al merodeo en los débiles pueblos fronterizos con Nicaragua, de donde se escabuyen cada vez que temen ser exterminados; y por último nos dijo, que actualmente persigue a los revolucionarios la Escuela Militar, al mando del General Palma (mexicano).
Por otro lado sabemos que el aquella ciudad fué expuslado el Cnel. Alejandro Pacheco, por consierarlo las autoridades non grata, debido a que se expresaba en términos desfavorables contra el Gbno. del General López Gutiérrez.


El Centroamericano, León, 19 May 1922


8 July 1922.   Movimientos en la frontera.
Por telégrama llegado a Somotillo se sabe que en los pueblos de El Triunfo y Concepción de María y en el valle de San José, fronterizos a Nicaragua, se han desarrollado movimientos revolucionarios que están ocupando la atención del Gobierno de Nicaragua por suponerse que tienen conexiones con descontentos nicaragüenses residentes en Honduras.
Esto último, según el decir oficial.
Como consecuencia de estos sucesos inesperados, se ha hablado de que el gobierno dictará medidas para asegurar la paz.


El Centroamericano, León, 8 July 1922


14 August 1922.   Nicaraguan Troops Nip a Revolution Started by Liberal Exiles in Two Cities.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Aug. 12 (Associated Press).—Chinandega, a city of 15,000 population, about ten miles from Corinto, a Pacific seaport, was attacked twice last night by members of the lower elements of the Liberal Party in Nicaragua, who were reinforced by refugees from Honduras and Salvador. Two revolutionists were killed and eight refugees wounded by the Government forces. Among those wounded was Antonio Tijerino, former Governor of the Department of Chinandega, and brother of the present Nicaraguan consul in New York.
Communications were cut during the engagement, but later restored. The rebels were completely scattered, and the Government now controls the situation.
Later on the same night a similar attack was made on Leon, the largest city in Nicaragua.
Governor Gustavo Arguello of the Department of Chinandega was wounded, and two policemen were killed in the course of the disorder; many revolutionists were wounded.
One thousand volunteers and well-equipped troops were sent from Managua and Granada to reinforce the garrison at Leon and Chinandega, and the United States Collector of Customs advises that there is no more trouble. At Corinto the United States Minister declared that the Government had complete control of the situation.
At Managua everything was quiet. Dr. Salvador Castrillo, former Nicaraguan Minister to Washington, with two followers, has been deported because of an alleged plot against the Government. The public and press are said to have approved the order for deportation.
Because of the revolutionary disturbances in the Departments of Leon and Chinandega, martial law has been declared in the republic for sixty days.
The rebels are reported to have evacuated to El Viejo, near Chinandega, and to have scattered into the surrounding country.
The leaders of the revolution are believed to be men who were banished last April and who returned recently under a general amnesty.


NYT, 14 August 1922


18 August 1922.   Confer on Border Raids.  Presidents of Three Central American Republics to Meet on Cruiser.

MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Aug. 17. (Associated Press.)—Using the borders of Nicaragua, Honduras and Salvador as a base, bands of robbers, revolutionists and refugees have been harassing the three republics by robberies depredations and attacks, keeping them in a constant state of turmoil and unrest.
To do away with this menace and obviate the constant expenditure of public moneys in separate fights against the marauders, a conference has been arranged in which the Presidents of the three republics and the American Ministers accredited to their Governments will take part.
The plan originated with President Chamorro and John E. Ramer, the American Minister to Nicaragua. The latter referred the matter to Washington, and the American Government authorized the use of the United States cruiser Tacoma as a second meeting place. The warship will proceed from Corinto tomorrow with President Chamorro, Mr. Ramer and others, to Arapala [Amapala], Honduras, where President Gutierrez and American Minister Morales will be taken aboard.
President Melendez and American Minister Schuyler will be picked up at the nearest Salvadorean port, and the vessel will sail for neutral waters, where the vexatious frontier question will be discussed and a settlement attempted.
A similar meeting of the Nicaraguan and Honduran Presidents, held in the Gulf of Fonseca two years ago, had beneficial results.


NYT, 18 August 1922


23 August 1922.   Pledge Peace Anew in Central America.  Heads of Three Republics Meet on American Warship and Reaffirm Treaty.  American Ministers There.  Nicaragua, Honduras and Salvador Agree to Enforce Measures to Check Rebel Invasions.
CORINTO, Nicaragua, Aug. 22 (Associated Press).—An unusual event occurred on board the United States cruiser Tacoma Sunday night, three miles off the shore in the neutral waters of the Gulf of Fonseca, when the Presidents of the Republics of Nicaragua, Honduras and Salvador, with the members of their Cabinets and in the presence of the American Ministers to those republics, signed a treaty in which the three republics renewed and extended the general treaty of peace and friendship made in Washington in 1907, the validity of which had until now been open to dispute. . . .
The presidents promise that they will not permit political emigrants from any one of the republics to organize or foment armed invasion of any other, or tolerate any act which will disturb or threaten peace. Each republic undertakes to guard its frontiers and vigorously enforce the former agreement made at Washington.
Will Keep Agitators From Frontiers.
It is also provided that leaders of agitation, political emigrants or their agents shall not be permitted to live near frontiers. Such leaders now living near frontiers will be placed under immediate surveillance and removed if this is thought necessary. In case of an invasion, the Government in whose territory it was organized is obligated to send forces to capture and disarm the guilty parties, who will be taken to the capital of that Government and punished in accordance with the law. The Presidents are also obligated to expel leaders of an invasion provided the threatened republic requests the expulsion. This provision is to apply to invasions already started, which was one of the reasons which occasioned the conference. . . .
[List of delegates from Nicaragua, Honduras, Salvador, US]


NYT, 23 August 1922


3 September 1922.   Border Rebels Captured.  Central American States Have Armies Out Against Them.
SAN SALVADOR, Republic of Salvador, Sept. 2 (Associated Press)—The military forces of the Central American republics are engaged in an active campaign against the rebels who have conducted a series of raids upon the settlements along the borders.
A dispatch from Tegucigalpa says the Nicaraguan authorities captured several rebel leaders and a number of their followers who attempted to cross the Nicaraguan frontier, and that troops are keeping a sharp lookout for other undesirables.
Complete order has been restored throughout Guatemala, say advices received here. The Government is reinforcing the garrisons in all the town and villages where the participants in the recent revolutionary movement were active.
Troops are in pursuit of the rebel leader Ferrera and remnants of his band, recently defeated by a Government force under General Tosta.  Ferrera is believed to have crossed into Salvador.


NYT, 3 September 1922


10 September 1922.   New Fight on Nicaraguan Frontier.
TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras, Sept. 9.—Reinforcements are being sent toward the Nicaraguan frontier, where new fighting has broken out between the troops and forces of the rebels. The rebels are said to have been defeated, and are now being pursued.


NYT, 10 September 1922


3 February 1923.   Pan Americans Not Arming.  Only Two Nations Spend Nearly Half of Budget on Military.
Special to the New York Times.
WASHINGTON, Feb. 2.—Only two of the twenty-one American nations are spending more than 40 per cent. of their budgets for military and naval purposes, it was revealed today in a set of figures which will be submitted to the Fifth Pan-American Congress to meet in Santiago, Chile, next month.
The congress will discuss the limitation of armament for Latin-American republics, along the line of the agreements reached at the Washington conference last Winter between this country and other nations. The agreement just reached by the five Central American nations now in conference here will be used as a model. [Washington Treaty of Peace and Amity signed 7 Feb. 1923 by El Salvador, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.]
Latest estimates, in most cases for the year 1921, show that the two nations now spending above 40 per cent. on armament are Mexico, with 40.8 per cent., and Honduras, with 44.5 per cent.
Of the other nations in this hemisphere the report shows that one of them, Chile, is spending between 30 and 40 per cent. of its appropriations for army and navy; five of them between 20 and 30 per cent.; nine between 10 and 20 per cent., and one less than 10 per cent. Two of the American nations, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, are not making any appropriation at present, either for army or navy, due to the American occupation, and Panama's only appropriation is for military police.


NYT, 3 February 1923


28 December 1923.   Washington Repeats Warning to Honduras.  Tells It the United States 'Regards With Disfavor' Any Attempt to Control Elections.
WASHINGTON, Dec. 27.—The American Minister at Tegucigalpa has been instructed to inform the President of Honduras and responsible officials of that Government that the United States regards with disfavor any attempt of a Government to perpetuate itself in power except by accepted constitutional processes. The communication was sent by the State Department as a result of the disturbed situation in Honduras incident to the Presidential election. . . .
According to these advices, some of which have come to private persons having interests in Honduras, Honduran troops not only put to death certain adherents to the cause of General Carias, the Opposition candidate for President, but crossed into Nicaragua and committed depredations against the citizens of that country. The Nicaraguan Government has protested, and the belief in Latin American quarters here is that a serious international situation may be developing behind the screen of secrecy interposed several days ago by censorship.


NYT, 28 December 1923


30 December 1923.   No Title.  [Reports of Border Troubles Unfounded, Officials Say.] 
TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras, Dec. 29 (Associated Press).—Reports of a raid by Honduran troops into Nicaragua are without foundation, it is authoritatively stated. There are some internal disorders, owing to the Presidential situation, but there has been nothing in the form of a raid over the frontier.
The U. S. S. Rochester, with Rear Admiral J. H. Dayton aboard, arrived this morning at Amapala, on the Pacific Coast, and is understood to be ready to land marines if needed. In Honduran circles it was declared that Nicaraguan sympathizers with the insurrectionists may cause serious trouble near the border, but they are confident that the presence of the American warship will prevent any actual hostilities. . . .


NYT, 30 December 1923


6 January 1924.   Tropas hondureñas cerca de Somoto.
Personal llegada ayer de Somoto nos informa que en aquella población y sus alrededores andan no menos de trescientos hondureños y que en el camino encontró al Gral. Francisco Martínez Funes, a la cabeza de cinco carrettas, cargadas al parecer de frijoles y arroz, lo que no le fué posible comprobar a nuestro informante por ír las carretas cubiertas, de una manera sospechosa. . . .
Ayer celebraron una conferencia muy privada en la capital el Sr. Presidente de la República, Mr. Ramer y el Canciller Urtecho. Se rumora que para tratar del embrollo hondureño y de las manifestaciones bélicas llevadas a cabo por aquel Gbno. en el Triunfo, que está fronterizo a Nicaragua.


El Centroamericano, León, 6 January 1924


5 February 1924.   Honduran Rebels to Fight Dictator.  Carias Opposes Gutierrez for Holding Presidency After National Elections Fail.  Notes By Hughes Ignored.  Other Governments Are Said to Have Urged in Vain That New Elections Be Held.
WASHINGTON, Feb. 4.—General Tubercio Carias has assumed the Presidency of the Revolutionary faction in Honduras, it was announced officially today at the State Department. Despite the large American interests in Honduras, the United States is carrying out its policy of watchful waiting, and unless American lives are endangered, it is believed that no action will be taken by this Government in the situation now existing there.
Word was received here today in official quarters that Lopez Gutierrez, whose term as President expired at midnight Jan. 31, and who has since assumed the role of Dictator, has called a special session of the de facto Congress to alter the Constitution of Honduras. It was intimated that Señor Gutierrez hopes to have the Constitution changed in order to continue in office as the Constitutional President of Honduras.
General Carias, described as the most popular of the three candidates for the Presidency who failed at the polls, has reached the Nicaraguan border, according to reports received here and will begin his march on Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, today. A large number of citizens who left the country some time ago are rallying to the support of General Carias, and it is believed that he will be able to muster 5,000 men for his march on the capital. The revolutionaries, ordinarily, would reach Tegucigalpa by Thursday, as it would not take more than three days to complete the march to the capital, but it is understood that President Gutierrez's forces are prepared to meet General Carias's troops in battle at a point half way between the Nicaraguan border and the capital.
Movements have been started in other parts of Honduras in support of General Carias, and it is said that within a week he will have more than 20,000 men under his command. . . .


NYT, 5 February 1924


8 February 1924.   Emigrados en Ocotal.
De fuente didedigna se sabe que los emigrados que se llaban en El Ocotal, salieron antier miércoles a medio día para Las Manos, en donde permaneceren en situación desesperante, porque no disponen ni de dinero ni de provisiones, habiendo pedido urgente auxilio a los altos emigrados que permanecen en esta capital. La bola de que estaba tamado en El Paraíso, resultó falsa, pues de ser cierta, los emigrados de referencia habríanse internado a Honduras, y no pasarían hambres en Las Manos.


El Centroamericano, León, 8 February 1924


13 February 1924.   Revolución en Honduras.
De Managua nos dijeron á medio día de ayer, que en el combate de Jacaliapa, lugar próximo á Las Manos, entre Danlí y Yuscarán, fueron batidos los revolucionarios, en número como de dos mil hombres mal armados, por mil soldados del ejército del gobierno, comandados por el general Teófilo Cárcamo, habiendo sufrido los carístas una gran derrota, que los hizo huir en todas direcciones, entrando muchos de ellos á territorio nicaragüense, conduciendo á heridos de importancia, entre otros á los coroneles Ricardo Lozano Díaz, herido de dos balazos en uno de los brazos, y Armando Reina, en otra parte del cuerpo, muy conocidos en la buena sociedad de Tegucigalpa, quienes actualmente se encuentran en El Ocotal. Creese que la derrota sufrida dará en breve término á la revolución.
Alfredo Reina, bonillista, hermano del cariísta derrotado, que está en Managua, ha trasladado fondos para hacer llegar á su hermano á la capital y prodigarle allí sus atenciones.


El Centroamericano, León, 13 February 1924


14 February 1924.   De Chinandega.
12 de Febrero.
Por una vindicación
Don Arturo Tijerino Morales, empleado de la Jefatura Política de este Departamento, sincera al señor Jefe Político Dn. Donoso Gasteazoro, correcto empleado y atento caballero, de un cargo que nadie le ha lanzado, por ser bien conocido el empleado que cometió el hecho que por la prensa se denunció; por lo que creemos que no había necesidad de tal vindicación. Después de confesar que Luis B. Blandón, quien cometió el salvaje atendado de mandar á hacer tres descargas de fusilerla sobre el administrador de la hacienda La Flor, en la frontera hondureña, es empleado del gobierno, niega que los cariístas residentes en Somotillo estén armados y bien organizados en tres cuarteles.
Decimos á Dn. Arturo que los cariístas hasta hace tres días ocupaban en aquel pueblo las casas de Eugenia Martínez Funes é Iliginio Ortiz, y que en cada una de esas casas había un pelotón con sus jefes respectivos, quienes los entregaban sueldo y mandaban destazar reces. Todos desde su llegada han permanecido armados de pistolas Colt 44, machetes y bastantes cartuchos, y en actitud bélica, que no han tratado de ocultar. Por último, el señor Francisco Matute, cariísta que desde su llegada á esta ciudad ha permanecido vigilando á todo aquel que llega de Honduras y no es de su bando, hace pocos días fue á Choluteca de incógnito, y á su regreso presenció las descargas que Blandón mandó á hacer sobre Cano. Al mismo Matute se le vió pasar el domingo 10 del corriente en pleno día por El Maniadero, La Virgen y El Puente Real con dirección á Somotillo, armado de un rifle maüser, y ese mismo día empezaron á movilizarse los cariístas con dirección á Las Manos. Según se nos asegura, la orden de quitarse de Somotillo les fue comunicada á los cariístas por una comisión de americanos, y actualmente si se han quedado algunos en aquel pueblo son muy pocos, pero antes de esta reconcentración había más de quinientos. Que conteste quien quiera sobre los anteriores datos, que aseguramos son absolutamente verídicos.


El Centroamericano, León, 14 February 1924


15 February 1924.   Atacó la plaza de San Marcos 
Antier miércoles á las cinco y media de la tarde atacó la plaza de San Marcos el general Francisco Martínez Funes, llevando de segundo al coronel Ramón Alvarado con una columna compuesta de 1.300 hombres, habiendo sido derrotado completamente por las fuerzas del gobierno del general López Gutiérrez.
Defendían la plaza de San Marcos los coroneles Concepción Peralta y Pilar Osegueda, militares valerosos y de toda la confianza del General López Gutiérrez. . . .
El coronel Rafael William, de Choluteca, importante cariísta, que se encuentra en Somotillo, se ha dirigido con fecha 10 del corriente á un paisano residente en Managua, rogánole gestionar ante el Ministro Ramer ó el Encargado de Negocios de Honduras, Dr. Luis H. Debayle, para que soliciten del general López Gutiérrez garantías para él y tres hijos, que desean regresar a sus hogares, por no poder soportar ya las penurías que están pasando en la emigración. . . .


El Centroamericano, León, 15 February 1924


18 February 1924.   Report of Visit to Honduran Frontier.    

Note: This report on the first leg of the first extended foray of US troops into the Segovian-Honduran borderlands was probably typed up in Somotillo. The expedition explored both sides of the Somotillo-Las Manos border region for another month, as described in the document that follows this one. This was not an invasion. It was, in hindsight, an early advance guard of the invasion that came 3½ years later, though the five men in the patrol could not have known it at the time. No one could have. This was a fact-finding mission.

18 FEBRUARY, 1924.

From: Captain Thomas E. Bourke, U.S. Marine Corps.
To: The Secretary of the Navy.
Via: The Major General Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps.
Subject: Report of Visit to the Honduran frontier.
1.  A party consisting of four enlisted men and myself with side arms left Managua at 1:15 p.m. February 6th, 1924, and arrived at Chinandega at 5:00 p.m. the same date. We were delayed at Chinandega until 9:00 a.m. February 7th due to the fact that all animals available had been taken over by the Nicaraguan Government forces. Left Chinandega at 9:00 a.m. February 7th and arrived Somotillo at 2:00 p.m. February 8th.
2.  The Honduran rebels had been informed the night before of our probable arrival by the Nicaraguan Government. About five hundred rebels were on the outside of the town to meet us. They conducted us to their headquarters where a conference was held with the leaders of their party. They informed us that there were about fifteen thousand Hondurans assembled in Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua ready to join in the revolution. They reported that vicious outrages had been perpetrated by the Honduran Government on followers of Carias. It was reported that the Government forces fired into crowds of Conservatives who were trying to vote on election day. In Tegucigalpa sixty-two were killed in this manner. They also stated that convicts all over Honduras have been released and armed to protect the present Government. These convicts have had no regard for the lives and property of the Conservatives.
3.  In Somotillo it is estimated that there were about fifteen hundred Honduran rebels gathered. Few arms except pistols and machettes were in evidence, but it is thought that rifles were put out of sight when they learned of our proposed arrival, due to the fact that small parties of armed men with rifles were met making their way to the border over the trail followed by our party. [ p. 2 ]
4.  The leaders of the rebels appear to be men of education and ability and seem to be animated by patriotic motives. They seemed to be very pleased of the interest that we showed in their affairs. In fact when the marine party left Somotillo they all gathered on the outside of the town and yelled, "Long Live America."
5.  There was no evidence in Somotillo of any arms or supplies having been shipped by the Nicaraguan government to the Honduras revolutionists.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Copy to Major General Commandant.
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Capt. Thomas E. Bourke, USMC to Secretary of the Navy; RG80, Box 336


24 March 1924. Marines in Nicaragua, 1924. Letter from an Ex-Sergeant, USMC.
Note:  This account of a month-long US Marine expedition through the war-torn Segovian-Honduran borderlands in February-March 1924 offers a fuller account of the expedition described in Lt. Bourke's official report of 18 Feb. 1924, above. This is not an official report. It takes the form of a long descriptive letter from USMC Sergeant F. F. Birnbaumer to his "sidekick" describing his just-completed 500-mile journey. It was published four years later in the semi-official Marine Corps magazine The Leatherneck (March 1928, pp. 7-8, with two photos). The article offers a fascinating portrait of political and social conditions in the borderlands from the perspective of a plainspoken Marine sergeant and his fellow grunts. 


Marines in Nicaragua, 1924
By F. F. Birnbaumer, Ex.-Sgt., U.S.M.C.

The Leatherneck

March 1928

In the belief that some Leathernecks now serving in Nicaragua will be relieved to learn that Nicaragua jungle ticks and other insects may nibble gleefully, and yet leave but little scars to stamp their memory on passing years, an incident of yesteryear is recalled.
Managua, Nicaragua,
March 24, 1924.
Dear Sidekick,
Hooray! Just finished scrubbing the last of the cooties off of myself.
You have doubtless heard something of the revolution which has been going on in Honduras in a half-hearted fashion since last November. I'm still getting quite a kick out of the thought of Central American "Generals." We were informed, while in Honduras, by a "general" himself that there are thirty-six of them today in that country.
Four other marines and myself, together with an interpreter, have been following on the trail of that revolution in both Honduras and Nicaragua for the past month. A radio from the State Department started it all off; that is, our end of the deal. Quite a number of Marines here volunteered for the trip, as it promised to be quite a novelty for the local detachment. Most of the Marines in camp would have been glad to have gone, even though everyone knew it meant hard riding, miserable food, not a great amount of even bad water, and sometimes very little sleep, but then look at the fun we'd have, to which some other member of the party would answer, "Oh, yes."
Break out your little map of Central America and follow the "rosebud" trail that we covered on burros. Leon, Chinandega, Punte Real, Somotillo., St. Thomas, San Pedro, San Francisco, Cacamuya gold mines, San Marcos de Colon, Oyote, El Tamarindo, Somoto Grande, Macuelizo, Las Limas, Los Manos, Ocotal, back to Cacamuya mines by way of Somoto Grande and San Marcos, back over the same run in the order above named, finally back to Cacamuya and then home again through Chinandega and Leon, a total distance of five hundred or more miles covered, over the roughest trails imaginable.
At two p.m. the five of us set out under orders on a handcar to Chinandega, a station between Nicaragua and Corinto on the Ferrocarril del Pacifico de Nicaragua. Chinandega was reached that night and we had to lay over until the following evening getting horses and a guide. After much difficulty we secured both mounts and an Indian guide and set out that evening for Somotillo, near the Honduran-Nicaraguan border. All night was spent in the saddle in the worst dust I had ever experienced. In many places it was several feet deep in the sunken trail, a soft, white pulverized dust. The air in the vicinity of the road was so filled with this dust that sight was difficult. We tied handkerchiefs over our noses to keep from suffocating and even then the fine dust sifted through and caused nose-bleed. Morning found us at Puente Real (Royal Bridge). He was indeed a euphemist who gave that bridge its name; a rickety bamboo span over a syrupy little stream, bordered on either side with mud flats. To add insult to injury a toll of 15 cents per person and five cents per animal is charged. Here we left the dust behind and all hands felt like shouting for glee. We soon passed into a cactus and thorn forest, quite a novelty, and all day we rode through a blazing sun, stopping only for a few minutes to rest the horses. We had had no food, water or sleep since leaving Chinandega the night before and some of us were beginning to get a "little hungry." About five miles out of Somotillo my horse fell over and proceeded to die, and I had the pleasure of hiking the remaining miles, feeling none too pugnacious. My saddle and equipment was taken care of by another of our party. Two other members of the party soon had to dismount and lead, or rather drag their horses, the remainder of the way.

Somotillo was finally reached; how nice. We chased the nearly naked wash-women out of the only waterhole and drank deep. We still had four or five cans of "willie" and beans and that was reinforced with tortillas (pronounced tor-tee-as). All this went down as if by magic and everyone admitted we felt better. Back we went and chased the dusky maidens out of the waterhole again and went swimming.
The next day three of us made a side trip to the border at St. Thomas, which was garrisoned by Nicaraguan troops. We were received with friendly demonstration and treated to our first real native dinner of tortillas, stale meat and very old eggs. Food here in these foothills is not especially appetizing, and particularly now during this revolution.


U. S. Marines with Nicaraguan Soldiers at St. Thomas, Nicaragua, February 1924

There is very little revolution, but lots of plundering. The tortillas here are made from the poor, stale, worm earthen corn, ground wet and baked into a thin leathery pancake, without any seasoning whatever. Meat is hung up in the sun, but doesn't dry, for the flies get to it first and the maggots next. That little fact doesn't bother the natives though. They nonchalantly knock the worms off with a stick, throw the meat on a hot coal, and presto, you have a nice juicy barbecue. The eggs, they're good though! It sometimes takes several days to find the nest, and then the eggs are buried in straw for a couple of weeks or months maybe. They come out rather peculiar looking--maybe they are a little "rotten." The most prized food here is the birdlike, tough, fighting stock chicken. Once captured, it is sort of cleaned and boiled for about fifteen or twenty minutes. This culinary process sets the flesh and makes it a little less palatable. Then it is served in its entirety on a palm leaf. These people use palm leaves for plates when they aren't too lazy to cut them. Knives, forks, spoons, cups and saucers are unheard of. The good old human hand fulfills all those purposes and gourds make ideal cups. Of course, the menfolk do use knives, the kind they carry around with them and use to chop down trees, kill wild beasts, and other men. They are about four feet long, with a five-inch blade, weigh about three pounds, and bear the label "Collins" if they are the fashionable kind. These make fairly good table knives. I noticed one fellow use one to put a bit of whey on a small cornmeal cake. In the States the farmers call these things corn knives, but here they are machettes.
We stayed in St. Thomas only a few hours and returned to Somotillo, having covered about forty miles, a big day's work with poor horses, and our horses were always poor.
Another day was spent in hustling horses again. In the afternoon we set out for San Pedro, still higher in the hills and toward the Northeast. We finished the last of our camp provisions and dropped all equipment except a blanket and a saddle bag. We could not carry either food or more equipment on account of the poor horses and the increasingly bad trails. We camped in the hills that night and enjoyed a little coffee and also the ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and such little inconveniences. San Pedro, garrisoned by Nicaraguan troops, was reached by noon of the following day, and another native dinner of tortillas and eggs was enjoyed by us. In fact, we lived entirely on native grub for over twenty days and none of us died, although the MO. did treat me to a lot of emetin on my return to camp. Somotillo, St. Thomas and San Pedro were barracks towns with only a few miserable huts, greatly overcrowded. At San Pedro we obtained burros instead of horses, better fitted for hill work and tougher than horses, even on the rider. Every time I see a burro now I want to walk up to him and punch him on the nose and pull his ears. We camped on a ledge that night and by noon next day reached the Cacamuya Gold Mines, managed by an American by the name of Samuelson. We got real food there and how we made his Mex cook put out the chow, and we got a bath, too, and everyone took his first shave in a week. We all appeared much less ferocious with the hair off. We hated to leave Cacamuya a day and a half later, but had to go on to San Marcos de Colon, the headquarters of the Honduran Government troops. There had been a young battle there a week before and the houses were pretty well sprayed with bullet holes. We stayed no longer than it was necessary at San Marcos, and proceeded on to El Tamarindo where we met General Funez with his wing of the revolutionary army.



Gunnery Sgt. Bruce, Rene Wallace, Black Chief and Small Detachment, 1924

The soldiers here on both sides were mostly Indians, barefooted, with no uniforms except a ribbon for the hat to designate their politics. All the troops wore large straw sombreros, trousers, but no shirts or shoes, and all looked like ancient pirates. They were armed with machettes, old 1884 single-shot Remingtons and old 7 and 11-mm Austrian Mauser rifles, useful as clubs but nothing else.
All of the troops were almost starved and have killed off all the live stock in the country. While we were in the general's hut a bunch of soldiers chased a young heifer right up in front of the hut and hacked its head off with a machette. They did not trouble to skin it, but just laid it open and each man fought to get a chunk of meat. Then each man ran off to himself and built a tiny fire to cook his piece. Some of the meat was eaten raw. We were glad to get away from the filth of this place.
Our guide led us astray during the night and lost us in a dry river bed where we were forced to camp until morning, and finally got on the right trail to Somoto Grande. It will be noted that we were traveling in Northeastward, part of the time in Honduras and part of the time in Nicaragua. Somoto was reached without further event and three of us left the following day for Honduras again.
We were again led astray by a poor guide, who led us off the right trail and into a jungle of underbrush and bull nettles. Macuelizo was reached late that night after a long, hot, tiresome ride on the mules.
Macuelizo is a tiny village hidden away in a bowl shaped valley well up in the mountain ridge. The inhabitants are simple, religious folk who seldom venture more than twenty miles from their homes.
Las Limas, the highest mountain, most inaccessible, and just inside Honduras, was reached by noon of the next day. Here General Carias, the big chief of the revolutinoist cause, and the would-be president of Honduras, had established his headquarters.
Carias proved to be a man of good education and was surrounded by staff officers of good mentality. We also met several Americans here, officers in the revolutionist army and soldiers of fortune. The food here was even worse than previously experienced on account of the large number of soldiers here and all supplies are obtained locally, there being no such thing as a base of supplies. The next day we reached Las Manos and spent the night. We nearly froze that night as we were high up and the air was very cold. It was so cold that we were able to see our breath until about nine o'clock the next morning, before the sun came out bright and warm enough to thaw us out.
Our southward trip from here to Ocotal and then back to Somoto Grande was made through a beautiful country, pierced by many mountain streams of clear, cold water, and covered with dense pine forests which filled the air with heavy pine fragrance as is sometimes experienced in passing through our own southern pine belt. One man was left behind in Ocotal and the other two joined us at Somoto Grande, but departed the following day for Managua by way of the high road to Leon, and the remaining three of us returned to San Marcos, where it was rumored another battle was soon to take place. We stayed here three days awaiting developments and then returned to Cacamuya Mines.
I remained behind at Cacamuya and the remaining Marine and the interpreter shoved off the next morning for San Marcos again, then to Somoto Grande and return to Cacamuya, which trip was made in three days of hard traveling. It was while at Cacamuya that news leaked through of the landing of about two hundred sailors and Marines on the North Coast of Honduras and their occupation of Tegucigalpa.
Orders were received to return to Managua, and we journeyed homeward through San Pedro, Somotillo, Puente Real, Chinandega, and then by train to Managua. The return trip from Somotillo to Chinandega, a distance of about sixty miles, was again made at night to avoid the heat. We rode for about an hour out of Puente Real through the thick dust, and then, it started to rain, the first of the season, and how it did rain! It came down in waves and blasts. The trail turned into a churned sea of mud and water and the dust on the horses and ourselves turned to muddy streaks, giving us a desperate appearance. Several of the party had purchased native undergarments, which come in bright blues, reds and stripes. These garments usually bleach white after a couple of washings, so when the soaking rain hit us they lost color so rapidly that one Marine, dressed in a bright red garment, presented some appearances of being wounded, and the color did not fade nearly so quickly from the skin as from the garment. The horses became frightened at the unusual amount of swirling water in the sunken trail, which was three feet deep in places, and stumbled and wallowed about throwing one man and covering all of us with mud.
We presented a most sorry spectacle upon our arrival at Chinandega the next day, but the following afternoon, when we arrived in Managua once more, we were quite ourselves again, and then after the first big chow someone said, "Just look at the fun we had," to which all hands answered, "Uh Huh."


The Leatherneck, March 1928, pp. 7-8


22 February 1924.   Noticias de la frontera norte y de la guerra de Honduras.

Noticias de la Frontera Norte

Persona que llegó antier de Somotillo nos da los siguientes informes:
Son falsas todas las noticias de Somotillo que ha estado publicando la prensa. En "El Diario Moderno" hemos visto noticias que han sido todas inventadas por los mismos hondureños, pues tres telegrafístas de los revolucionarios no salían de la oficina telegráficas de aquel pueblo, y éllos mismos daban esas noticias, pues al público en general le consta q' perennemente estaban los mencionados hondureños con la mano sobre los aparatos, como si hubieran sido empleados de este gobierno.
La derrota que sufrieron las fuerzas que de allá salieron al mando de Martínez Fúnez y el General Velásquez, fué desastrosa. Algunos de éllos, los más francos, dicen que los hicieron paste. A Somotillo han llegado ya bastantes de los que fueron derrotados en San Marcos, y que habían salido de Somotillo en son de guerra. Otros dicen que han quedado por los pueblitos más fronterizos, como San Pedro, Santo Tomás, Cinco Pinos, San Francisco y los demás aseguran q' buscaron el camino de su casa, fuera de los q' tomaron la ruta de las Segovias, porque toda la gente que en la frontera nicaragüense se reunió fué a la que hicieron paste en Las Manos y en San Marcos.
No se crea la prensa de noticias que de aquel pueblo les llegue, porque ya hay otra vez telegrafístas de los derrotados, y se mantienen en los aparatos de la oficina nacional.
El auxiliar de la oficina, un fulano López, que es cantador, le ha sacado canción a los valientes hondureños que pelean con valor por su libertad, según reza la letra de la canción, pues es él gran partidario de las huestes hondureñas, y es así que de los aparatos y de todo disponen aquéllos en su oficina.


El combate de Jacaleapa — Varios muertos y heridos
De "Patria" diario de Tegucigalpa del 13 de Febrero.
Los revolucionarios encabezados por Juan Pablo Urrutia, Juan B. Pagüaga [Paguaga], Pio Fálope, Inocente Tuminio, Mariano Sanabria y Manuel Zúniga Medal, venían el sábado nueve del presente mes a atacar la plaza de Yuscarán, encontrándose en Jacaleapa, departamento de El Paraíso, de sorpresa con las fuerzas del gobierno, con las que combatieron rudamente durante cinco horas en las cuales fueron derrotados los primeros quedando dueños del campo los generales Francisco Cardona, José Antonio Sánchez, José María Fonseca, Célso Cambar y el Coronel Julio Mejía.
El Gobierno tuvo cuatro muertos entre los cuales se cuenta al valiente Coronel Cleto Martínez y diez heridos. Los revolucionarios tuvieron muchos muertos y heridos. Entre los muertos de estos se pudo identificar al Coronel Miguel Flores Carías y al Coronel Tomás Mejía M. quien cayo avanzado herido.
Los jefes del gobierno una vez que derrotaron al enemigo, se dedicaron a su persecución y por eso no pudieron dar parte circunstanciado de muertos y heridos.
Combate de San Marcos
Atacante, Francisco Martínez Fúnez. Defensor de la plaza Coronel Concepción Peralta con ciento cincuenta hombres.
Bajas por parte del enemigo cinco personas y seis heridos; por parte del gobierno cuatro muertos y cinco heridos. El combate principió a las cuatro de la mañana de hoy, y terminó a las nueve am. Se avanzó a los revolucionarios toda la correspondencia, dos oficiales, bestias y fusiles remington y maüsser.
Otras noticias oficiales de última hora
De la Ceiba, Departamento de Atlántida, avisan que en Esparta fue derrotado el enemigo que ascendía a 200 individuos.
Aviasan del Departamento de Choluteca, que en San Marcos de Colón fue derrotado el enemigo, habiendo salido rumbo a Nicaragua.
Dentro de pocos días reinará la paz en el seno de la República
Mañana ampliaremos estos informes.
Chispazo prisionero
. . . La retaguardia del enemigo había quedado en Danlí, donde saquearon a varias familias entre éllas la de Gamero, y al ver que las fuerzas del Gobierno iniciaban, después de haber tomado posiciones, el combate, se retiraron en el desbarajuste, continuándose entonces su persecución.
El Comandante de Danlí acaba de dar el siguiente parte: "Danlí, 12 de Febrero de 1924, 9 y 30 am.—Sr. Presidente:—Los últimos datos que he obtenido de los revolucionarios es que la mayor parte traspasaron la frontera, habiendo sido reconcentrados por parte de Nicaragua. También me permito manifestarle que en el trayecto por donde pasaron se han encontrado varios muertos y muchos sepulturas de ellos. Sólo se identificó al Coronel Miguel Flores Carías de esta ciudad. Seguiré informándole de los demás datos que obtenga.—A. GOMEZ CARIAS".
También avisa que ha sido organizada en Danlí la Cruz Roja, bajo la presidencia de doña Lucila Gamero de Medina, para asistir los heridos encontrándose en el hospital de sangre 14 heridos del Gobierno y del enemigo, a los que se les ha estado dando una buena asistencia.
Entre los revolucionarios andaba el Lic. don Rafael Valenzuela Fonseca.
De Camasca, departamento de Intibucá se ofrecen al gobierno trescientos voluntarios para combatir la revolución.
El Coronel Salomón Sorto Z. comunica hoy de La Paz, que después de un ligero tiroteo entró a dicha plaza.

El Centroamericano, León, 22 February 1924

Sat. Feb. 9.  Battle of Jacaleapa.  2,000 revolutionists (led by Urrutia, Paguaga, Fálope, Tuminio, Sanabria, Zúniga Medal) en route to attack plaza of Yuscarán, attacked by government troops (Cardona, Sánchez, Fonseca, Cambar, Mejía).  After five hour battle, revolutionists defeated and dispersed.
Tues Feb 12?  Sacking of Danlí.  Dispersed revolutionists sack enemies' homes in Danlí; government troops arrive, attack; rebels dispersed into Nicaragua.
Wed Feb. 13.  Battle of San Marcos.  1,300 revolutionists (led by Martínez Funes, Alvarado) mobilize in and march from Somotillo, attack San Marcos plaza defended by 500 government troops (Peralta).  Revolutionists badly defeated, dispersed; many deaths reported; government forces 4 killed, 14 wounded; defeated rebels reportedly filter back into Nicaraguan border towns.


28 February 1924.   Noticias de la revolución cariísta.
Las fuerzas revolucionarias al mando del propio general Tiburcio Carías (a) La Buchona, que estaban vivaqueando en El Pedregalito, Sabana Redonda y Monte de León, fueron derrotadas por las del gobierno al mando de los generales Julio Peralta, Francisco Cardona, José A. Sánchez y otros.
El Gral Carías tení a su mando más de mil hombres, todos armados de rifles nacionales 7 m/m. rifles remington, pistolas y machetes y unas pocas ametralladoras marca Thompson. Según informes oficiales, de Vado Grande (Nicaragua) ingresaron a reforzar a los revolucionarios los derrotados en Jacaleapa, en número como de ciento y pico en espera de la llegada de otros grupos q' se encontraban en El Gavilán y El Oyote.
Durante el combate, los cariístas armados de machetes llegaron hasta una de las ametralladoras del general Julio Peralta, la que destruyeron completamente. Del parte oficial de la batalla tomamos los siguientes datos: "El Pedregalito, via Yuscarán, 21 de Febrero de 1924.—A las seis y media atacamos las posiciones del enemigo que se encontraba entre El Pedregalito, Sabana Redonda y cerca de Chilampa, y después de cuatro horas de combate, reñido, huyo vergonzosamente, internándose al pueblo de Santa María en territorio de Nicaragua. El enemigo estaba encabezado, según informes del avanzado Hipólito Rosales Pavón, chaufeur de don Santos Soto, por el propio general Carías, Faustino P. Calix, Juan B. Pagüaga [Paguaga], Inocente Triminio, Mariano Sanabria, Simón López, y un Pérez, con un número de combatientes de más de mil hombres, de éstos armados como en número de quinientos. Han dejado gran cantidad de muertos y entre los jefes que se han podido identificar aparece el general Pio S. Fálope. Se les avanzó gran número de rifles 7 m/m y 11, gran cantidad de parque Thompson y Hotckis—Affmos Generales Francisco Cardona, José A. Sánchez, Cámbar, Peralta y Fonseca."
De otro parte oficial tomamos el dato que sigue, por tratarse de ése país:—"Incontinenti dispuso la defensa del tren y ambulancia el mismo General (se refiere a Julio Peralta) quien no sólo la defendió sino que tomó los primeros atrincheramientos del enemigo. El General José María Fonseca, atacaba al enemigo con un fuego intermitente, el que sirvió para la defensa de las posiciones que ocupaba el Gral Peralta. A continuación tomé el mando de la columna que comanda el Coronel Jacobo Mejía, la que desplegamos sobre las alturas de Chilampa; el combate se instensificó: no se oían gritos ni lamentos de heridos, ni vivas; los remington reventaban haciendo retumbar los cerros; el fuego era general por las alturas de Nicaragua, sobre "Oroca" destacaban una columna para atacar nuestra retaguardia, pero ya fue tarde—." Entre otras cosas el mismo parte dice: "—Allí me llamaron la atención de que podíamos violar el territorio de nuestra hermana y me costó trabajo hacer regresar a esas fuerzas [se refiere el parte a 200 tegucigalpas!] que ebrios de entusiasmo, no querían retroceder de allí. Tomamos El Pedregalito sin resistencia. Si aparecen muertos ALLA, EN LA FRONTERA, ES POR QUE MUCHOS LOS LLEVABAN PARA ENTERRARLOS, sin perjuicio de los que dejaron en el campo.—Affo. Subalterno, C. Cámbar G"
Otro dato oficial dice: "Yuscarán, Feb. 21 de 1924.—Después de derrotar al enemigo en Jacaleapa, ayer al combatirlo por seguunda vez, huyó combardemente a territorio nicaragüense, dejando en el campo de El Pedregalito, gran número de muertos, heridos y pertrechos de guerra. (f) Juan R. Fonseca, Jefe de la Plaza Mayor."
Con esta derrota al propio general Tiburcio Carías (a) La Buchona, verán los numerosos lectores de "El Centroamericano", que la idea de atrapar el Poder, le ha costado muy caro, con todo y que ciertas personas de Managua, están interesadas en que el conservatismo hondureño llegue a la Presidencia.
Noticias de la revolución del ferrerísmo
E. Gral Gregorio Ferrera, que también se ha levantado en armas por su propia cuenta y con ideas de derrocar al liberalismo para llegar al poder, atacó la ciudad de Comayagua, donde después de 6 horas de combate reñido, fue derrotado.
Las fuerzas del revolucionario Ferrera, entraron hasta la Escuela Normal de Señoritas y pelearon bravamente en las calles de la ciudad. . . .
Esta derrota del ferrerismo ha venido a desmoralizar las fuerzas indígenas en su totalidad, las que se han visto obligadas a salir despavoridas de dicho lugar. . . .
"Du Lamercier", Tegucigalpa, 23 de Febrero de 1924.


El Centromericano, León, 28 February 1924


2 March 1924.   Another Warship Sent To Honduras.  Admiral Doubles Marine Guard at Ceiba, Where American Citizen Has Been Killed.  Rebels Besiege Capital.  But Meanwhile Other Central American Countries Start a Move for Peace.
Special to the New York Times.
WASHINGTON, March 1.—Simultaneously with the receipt of news of more fighting in Honduras, the State Department announced today that another warship had been dispatched to Honduran waters and that Admiral Dayton, whose flagship is the Denver, had landed an additional detachment of thirty-five marines at Ceiba where the American consulate was fired upon in recent fighting. . . .
A detachment of American marines, dispatched, from Managua, Nicaragua, is operating on the border between the two countries to prevent the smuggling of arms.


NYT, 2 March 1924


6 March 1924.   La candidatura Sacasa-Carazo Hurtado en los pueblos del Norte de Chinandega.
La gira de propaganda que merecí el honor de desempeñar por encargo especial del Honorable Comité Departamental pro-Sacasa carazo-Hurtado, en los pueblos de Somotillo, Villanueva y otros, tuvos más lisongero resultado.
El 20 de Febrero retropróximo salí con rumbo á Somotillo, en unión de los coroneles Emigdio Mayorga y Juan Meléndez Oconor y dos compañeros más.
Antes de llegar á la población de nuestro destino, en un paraje pintoresco denominado Los Espinos, nos esperaban sesenta amigos liberales montados en buenas cabalgaduras; serían las seis y media de la tarde, cuando fuimos divisados por nuestros atentos y cariñosos correligionarios de Somotillo.
El encuentro fue cordial y lleno del más vivo entusiasmo . . .
[long involved description of the campaign in the area; transcription in progress]


El Centroamericano, León, 6 March 1924


8 March 1924.  Lo que pasa en nuestra frontera norte.
Chinandega, 6 de marzo de 1924.
Tenemos informes de que la comisión americana que recorre la fronter Norte fue muy bien atendida en San Marcos de Colón por las fuerzas del General López Gutiérrez, que pernoctan en aquella pintoresca ciudad. La comisión quedó bien impresionada de la disciplina y del orden que reinan entre los jefes, officials y soldados, y convencida de que los revolucionarios permanecen en territorio nicaragüense, pues aunque se les ha ordenado la reconcentración al interior del país, ellos aparentemente obedecen, pero en seguida vuelven a sus incursiones armadas. Así hemos sabido que sin retirarse todavía de San Marcos la comisión americana, vino un grupo de cincuenta revoltosos al puerto de La Flor, en el Estero Real, á cuatro leguas de Somotillo y en jurisdicción de Chinandega, á llevar en carretas una parte de 300 rifles y 40 cajas de parque que allí habían el martes 3 del corriente; y hoy deben haber vuelto á llevar el resto de tales elementos que fueron embarcados para La Flor en el puerto El Nacascolo. De La Flor fueron llevados á unas quebradas que quedan cerca de San Francisco de Cuajiniquilapa por los carreteros Juan P. Castillo, Zacarías Andino, Juan José Canales y Simeón Marenco, este último se nos asegura que hacía de jefe de todos. Reunidos esos elementos con los que les llegarán por San Francisco del Carnicero y Chontales, los revolucionarios cariístas harán un nuevo ataque á San Marcos de Colón y Choluteca, y como esta última plaza no es fácil de tomar, piensan comprarla.
Hay gran espectación y se hacen grandes conjeturas con la salida de tantos elementos de guerra y se comenta cómo puede ser posible que el Presidente Martínez con todo ésto piense en la pacificación de nuestra hermana del Norte.
Los quince números de tropa del Gobierno de Nicaragua que permanecen en Cinco Pinos vigilando la frontera, mejor sería que les dieran de baja, pues no llenan los fines para que han sido dados de alta y cuestan muy caro á la nación; sólo sirven ellos para que á su sombra los cariístas hagan sus evoluciones, que redundan en perjuicio de la paz de Centro América. Actualmente el jefe está obligando á los vecinos de aquel pueblo á que se inscriban en el censo conservador, amenzándolos con multas si no lo hacen, sin hacer caso de las circulares presidenciales.
Pedimos que se investiguen tales irregularidades y se ponga remedio al mal.
Corresponsal II.


El Centroamericano, León, 8 March 1924


19 March 1924.   La intervención americana en Honduras para poner fin á la anarquía que allá reina.
Avisó ayer Choluteca á Somotillo, que las conferencias de Amapala fracasaron por no haber concurrido Guatemala y El Salvador, y que con tal motivo, viendo que la anarquía cada vez toma más cuerpo, desembarcaron en el Golfo de Fonseca tropas americanas que van en dirección de Tegucigalpa, habiendo pasado por Pespire á las 3 de la mañana de ayer un cuerpo de ejército de 500 chaquetas azules rumbo á la capital, llevando ameralladoras y suficiente tren de guerra.
Antier aún se podia comunicar Choluteca con Tegucigalpa, pero la línea fue rota por unos camiones entre Sabana Grande y El Sauce.
De Somotillo avisaron á Chinandega ayer, que hace 5 días salieron de San Marcos 48 individuos del gobierno de Honduras, armados de rifles y pistolas Colt que se volvieron á internar por el lado de San Francisco de Cuajiniquilapa.
Avisaron igualmente de Somotillo que antier llegó al lugar llamado Vado Ancho, á las 11 de la mañana, una persona que afirma que por el plan de Corpus, en dirección á las Sierras venían cien hombres armados del Gobierno de Honduras, no se sabe para dónde.
El Jefe Político de Nueva Segovia comunicó al Ministerio de Gobernación haber recibido informes del vigía que tiene en la frontera, llamado Jesús Paguaga, que de fuente cariísta sabe que tomada antier la placa de Yuscarán por el general Juan B. Paguaga, saliendo desbandadas las fuerzas del gobierno rumbo á Güinope.
Por inalámbrico que recibió ayer la Legación Americana se sabe que las fuerzas cariístas que insistentemente han atacado Tegucigalpa, han sido rechazadas. El mensaje no dice nada si las fuerzas de Ferrera que estaban en Toncontin se han unido á las del Gbno., por ser ambas liberales.


El Centroamericano, León, 19 March 1924


21 March 1924.   Falsos informes, echados a rodar.
Ayer, á la una de la tarde ingresaron á esta ciudad, procedentes de la Nueva Segovia, los caballeros don Marcial López y dn. César Peñalba; y conversando con ellos sobre los informes enviados de aquella región sobre la supuesta invasión de emigrados nicargüenses, en la región fronteriza con Honduras, mostraron su extrañeza por lo descabellado de tales informes.
No hay una sola palabra de verdad en todo eso, nos dijo el señor López: Ayer, (miércoles 19) salimos de Limay. Peñalba viene directamente desde Murra. Toda aquella región está perfectamente tranquila, y ni la más leve señal de perturbación se nota por allá; en Somoto permanecen uno ó dos vigilantes americanos, que inmediatamente sabrían de cualquier disturbio. En cuanto á emigrados nicaragüenses, no han dejado de estar salvando la frontera, huyendo de la persecución que Honduras se ha desatado contra ellos. Pero los que regresan no son emigrados políticos, sino obreros y jornaleros que allá habían ido en busca de trabajo. Lo seguro es que, tales falsos informes hayan sido echados á rodar con el fin de cometer fraudes, arbitrariedades, abusos en las inscripciones y hasta quizá queriendo aguar el magnifico recibimiento que León, sede del liberalismo, hizo al Presidente Martínez; cordialidad que ha hecho creer al emilianismo en una inteligencia entre el Gobierno y este partido, que de ser cierta, daría no hay duda en tierra con todos los proyectos que contra la libertad tiene listos, para ponerlos en juego, en el momento preciso. . . .


El Centroamericano, León, 21 March 1924


25 March 1924.   Honduran Capital Expects A Battle.  American Marines Patrol Neutral Zone Established In Tegucigalpa.  Act At Ferrera's Request.  This Rebel Commander Agrees Not to Fight in Streets Adjacent to American Legation.
Special to the New York Times.
WASHINGTON, March 24.—A neutral zone comprising areas near the American Legation and consulate in Tegucigalpa, capital of Honduras, has been established in anticipation of the battle between rebel and so-called de facto forces for possession of the capital, according to official advices received by the Navy Department this afternoon.
The area is being patrolled by American marines and bluejackets, under instructions to protect the legation and consulate and the American citizens and other foreigners who have taken refuge there.
Whether the battle, set for daybreak today, actually began is not known definitively, as naval officers say reports of it could not reach here before late tonight or tomorrow morning. It was declared to be certain, however, that if a battle had not already taken place, one was imminent, as the city was surrounded by rebel forces of Generals Carias and Ferrera. Official advices here indicate they will probably be able to capture the capital from the so-called de facto, or Arias, forces.
A dispatch to the State Department, under date of March 22, said that since the arrival of the American landing forces up to that time the capital had been quiet, though Navy Department advices spoke of desultory fighting in the streets. Numerous protests have been circulated against the presence of the American forces, though it is stated that all these protests have been signed by the same person. . . .
General Ferrera, commanding one of the rebel troops, notified the American Minister on March 21 that an attack would be made, and that fighting would probably occur in the streets, and asked that the neutral zone be established. He promised that this zone would be respected. There was an attack on the city by rebels under Carias on March 21, but it was repulsed.
The commandant of the Honduran forces at Amapala, a seaport on the Pacific coast, has declared in support of General Ferrera. This important point was formerly regarded as in favor of Carias.
The American cruiser Milwaukee, stationed at Amapala, is keeping a close lookout for attempts to smuggle arms into Honduras in defiance of the proclamation by President Coolidge declaring an embargo on such shipments. It is reported semi-officially that a cargo of arms intended for Honduras has left New Orleans secretly, but it is not know whether the attempt to smuggle them will be made through Atlantic or Pacific ports. Naval advices indicate that arms are being carried across the Nicaraguan border, despite the patrol maintained there by American marines sent from Managua, the capital of Nicaragua. . . .


NYT, 25 March 1924


27 March 1924.   Noticias de la frontera hondureña.
Un correo llegado de San Pedro Sula á Somotillo á las 5 am. de ayer, informa que Isidro Mendoza aseguraba haber visto á Concho Peralta con doscientos hombres camino de la frontera nicaragüense, vía de San Francisco de Cuaniniquilapa.


El Centroamericano, León, 27 March 1924


29 March 1924.   La actitud del pueblo de chinandega ante los asesinatos de nuestros hermanos en honduras.

En la ciudad de Chinandega a veincinco días del mes de marzo de mil novecientos veinticuantro. Reunidos los suscritos, con motivo de las alarmantes noticias recibidas de particulares recientemente venidos de la hermana República de Honduras, y publicadas algunas por la prensa de hoy, respecto al fusilamiento de nicaragüenses, por jefes revolucionarios hondureños, por el sólo hecho de ser nicaragüenses; y siendo ésto un verdadero atentado al derecho, a la civilización y a la amplia fraternidad con acogidos los centroamericanos,
[ Four part protest against action of Hondurans: 1) energetic protest, 2) demand that Nicaraguan government undertake prompt action to bring the Honduran perpetrators to justice, 3) national press should pay attention to this "transcendent issue", and 4) a commission led by Porfirio Pérez N. and Dr. Salvador Buitrago Díaz will submit this protest to Minister of Gobernación to "put in the hands" of the President of the Republic, Bartolomé Martínez ]
[ signatures: ]
Santiago Callejas
Juan Prieto
F. Rafael Paniagua
I. Mayorga
Juan Rivas C.
J. Zepeda H.
Augusto J. Caldera
and 150 others [ 157 total; probably the cream of León's Liberals ]


El Centroamericano, León, 29 March 1924


30 March 1924.   Rockefeller Foundation Trip of Inspection to the Honduran Border.
Dr. Daniel M. Malloy, Rockefeller Foundation, to Col. Russell, USMC.
March 30, 1924
Explanatory note:  This letter from Dr. Daniel M. Malloy, Director of the Rockefeller Foundation's program in Nicaragua, to Col. Russell of the US Marine detachment in Managua, describes his team's 500-mile trip through Las Segovias in March 1924.  The Rockefeller Foundation began its hookworm and yellow fever control work in Nicaragua in 1918.  This was its first substantive foray into the northern regions.  The journey took place in the same month as the Marines' first intelligence-gathering mission into the Segovian borderlands, as seen above.  Of special note are Dr. Malloy's descriptions of the region's political unrest; of its abject poverty and high disease rates; and of the reaction of the local populace to its program.  I thank the Rockefeller Foundation Archives for its financial support in providing access to this and related documents.

International Health Board ofThe Rockefeller Foundation
61 Broadway, New York
Hookworm and Yellow Fever Control
D. M. Malloy, M.D.
Director For Nicaragua
Paraphrase of Letter to Col. Russell
dated Managua, March 30, 1924
Subject is trip of inspection to Honduran border.
He and his team just returned from 500-mile trip through Las Segovias, about 225 in a Ford car and the rest on mules. Foundation work in the area began in latter part of December 1923. Bad timing to begin the work, because of the revolutionary activities in Honduras and the unsettled conditions. One staff member in charge of hookworm post in Macuelizo barely escaped with his life when a band of marauders swooped down on the town from Honduras. Disturbed conditions along the border interferes with the Foundation's work. Hopes for more normal times soon.
Descriptions of woeful social conditions throughout much of Nueva Segovia; abject misery and suffering in certain parts. Hookworm and malaria causing very high mortality rates, especially among the young. Of 120 people examined in Jalapa, 80% infected. Quinine a real problem. Too expensive, trying to figure out ways to get quinine to people at a reasonable cost -- says he will work with the Hijas de Maria, a woman's religious organization, if other plans fail at getting quinine to people.
Overall a feeling of disappointment at the hookworm program in Nueva Segovia. People very ignorant and superstitious, would take to the hills when approached by Foundation staff. Mass treatments impracticable -- people not trusting enough. No local authority to appeal to for help. Only three priests in the whole department, they help but not enough. Vast majority of the people live in the valles that can't be reached. Feels stumped. Discouraged. Hopes for mass treatment shattered.
Signed by D. M. Malloy


International Health Board, Record Group 5, Series 1.2, Sub-Series 325, Box 194, Folder 2478, D. M. Malloy to Col. Russel, March 30, 1924, Rockefeller Foundation Archives, New York


2 April 1924.   Contrabandistas en Murry y Jalapa.
El Comandante de hacienda de la frontera capturó a Pastor Molinares, Santos Murillo, Emilio Cabrera, Rodolfo Herrera y Luis Rodríguez, quienes fueron encontrados infraganti, destilando cususa en los puntos llamados Santa Rosa, en jurisdición de Mura y en Jalapa.


El Centroamericano, León, 2 April 1924


23 April 1924.  Espleluzantes informes sobre la suerte de nuestros compatriotas en Honduras.
Don Camilio López Irías, persona ventajosamente conocida en Nicaragua, especialmente en las Segovias, de donde es originario, lo mismo que en León y Chinandega, acaba de regresar á su patria, procedente de Honduras, vía Guatemala y El Salvador.
El señor López Irías residia en San Pedro Sula y trabajaba como empleado en una compañía americana. La revolución, como se ha dado en llar á éso, encontró al señor López Irías en aquella antes floreciente ciudad de la costa. El presenció las escenas de incendio, de pillaje y de sangre, llevadas á cabo por las bandas de foragidos, comandados por Tosta y demás jefes, émulos de aquellos otros hombres que se llamaron Guardiola, Vásquez y Durón.
El señor López pudo escapar de la ferocidad de los libertadores, refugiándose en la casa Hubert, americana, de la cual era Gerente de aquellos días el Tenedor de Libros de la misma, Dn. Juan Barbieri, nicaragüense, quien tuvo para el señor López y otros compatriotas noble comportamiento.
Por fin, el 22 de Marzo, venciendo innúmeras dificultades, pudo escapar á Puerto Barrios, en una embarcación de gasolina.
Es nuestro amigo López uno de los pocos nicaragüenses que después de la toma de San Pedro Sula pudieron escapar con vida.
Es absolutamente falso que solamente á los nicaragüenses cogidos con las armas en la mano ó que se hubieran mezclado en asuntos políticos, hayan sido asesinados.
En la Lima, dice el señor López Irías, fueron asesinados por las hordas de Tosta los nicaragüenses Francisco Solís, carpintero; Alberto Mejía, compañero de Solís; un jovencito José Pérez, de Chinandega; Virgilio Vega, de Masaya, á quien obligaron á cavar su propia sepultura; José de la Cruz, Pedro Herrera, de Estelí, y Simeón Urbina, de Managua, los cuales nunca se mezclaron en asuntos políticos ni militares, pues vivieron dedicados al trabajo. A. Miguel Bolaños M., de Masaya, lo tuvieron enterrando muertos y poco después lo sacaron de la cárcel con guardias, sin que se conozca su paradero.
La Cuyamel Company le pidió garantías á Tosta para los operarios nicaragüenses de la Lima; pero aquel facineroso, se las negó, por lo cual la Compañía tuvo que embarcar por su cuenta á los que pudo y enviarlos á Bluefields.
Cómo será de ciega la ferocidad de los libertadores hondureños, que al capturar á todos los operarios de un campo llamado Guanchía, en el mismo San Pedro Sula, el jefe hondureño mandó formarlos en fila y ordenó:
—¡Un paso al frente los pinoleros!
Diecisiete jornaleros y artesanos nicaragüenses avanzaron, y acto continuo cayeron acribillados á balazos.
Los cadáveres quedaron tirados, sin que se permitiera al Dr. Masís,, nicaragüense, darles sepultura. Los americanos de La Lima tuvieron que enterrarlos.
El Comandante de La Ceiba ordenó que nicaragüenses y salvadoreños tení 48 horas para salir de aquella población, donde no podían encontrar en esos momentos medio alguno de salir.
Per el que ha dado la nota más alta de humanidad y dado la medida de la cultura y civilización de las tribus de allende el Guassaule, es el Comandante de Trujillo bañando en petróleo á los nicaragüenses que capturaba y pegándoles fuego........para divertirse.
Estas últmas noticias circulan en la prensa de El Salvador, enviadas en canje á la prensa de Guatemala, como pueden leerse en otro lugar de la presente edición.
Hasta allí los informes que nos ha suministrado un testigo presencial y digno de crédito como el Sr. López Irías.
¿Comentarios? Para qué! Somos tan desgraciados, ha descendido tanto Nicaragua, estamos tan envilecidos, que hasta las hordas de salvajes que siempre han temblado ante el orgullo pinolero; hasta aquellos que han besado el caite de nuestros soldados victoriosos, hasta los cobardones que han mordido el polvo cada vez que han intendato ofendernos,.......hasta esa canalla nos insulta hoy impunemente. Naturalmente: tienen de su parte la complicidad de un partido que no para en medios para alcanzar el predominio en Centroamérica. Están seguros de que no habrá un gobierno que reclame contra esos hechos de barbarie. Más todavía: las armas que tienen y con las que han sacrificado y continúan asesinado á los nicaragüenses, las han recibido aquí en Nicaragua, entregadas por el chamorrismo y por quién sabe quiénes más y seguirán obteniéndolas, á vista y paciencia del pueblo que nada hace para impedirlo.
Y mientras los emigrados cariístas en Nicaragua se mueven libremente y reciben toda clase de auxilios del chamorrismo y de las autoridades chamorristas que simulan obedecer las órdenes del Gobierno, se detiene y encarcela en Somotillo y Chinandega á los nicaragüenses que vienen huyendo de la feroz persecución de los salvajes de allende el Río Negro.
Lo único que falta es que las autoridades obliguen á nuestros compatriotas fugitivos á repasar la frontera para darle gusto á los Paulino Vallardes, Vincente Tosta, Tiburcio Carías, y demás glorias del bandolerismo político de Honduras. . . .


El Centroamericano, León, 23 April 1924


23 April 1924.   Lo que nos dijo un joven hondureño.

En la estación del ferrocarril ayer a la hora del tren que va para oriente, saludamos al apreciable joven hondureño don Miguel A. Rosales, hijo del general Máximo B. Rosales, bien conocido por estas latitudes.
El joven Rosales nos informa que fue de los que por largo tiempo mantuvieron en Choluteca el prestigio de las fuerzas lopezgutierristas, plaza que no ha mucho desocuparon, sin disparar un tiro y conservando el ejército todo sus pertrechos de guerra en atención a lo difícil que se presentaba la lucha en aquella plaza, por su situación topográfica.
Nuestro informante nos dice que él optó por venirse a Nicaragua, figurándose que las garantías de que aquí gozaban los revolucionarios se hacía extensiva a todos los hondureños; pero que al llegar a Chinandega, había sido encarcelado y remitido, bajo su palabra de honor a la capital.
Sorprendente a todas luces es tal proceder de las autoridades chinandeganas, las cuales, como se desprende de lo anterior, notoriamente favorecen a los revolucionarios hondureños; a aquellos mismos que asesinan y martirizan a nuestros compatriotas que caen en sus garras.
Damos en traslado este informe al señor Presidente Martínez, quien estamos seguro es extraño a tales procedimientos.


El Centroamericano, León, 23 April 1924


2 May 1924.   El Dr. Corea y el asunto de las armas a Honduras.

El señor Ministro de la Guerra general Camilo Barberena Anzóategui estuvo en estos días en esta ciudad investigando el peliagudo asunto de las armas y parque que los conservadores chamorristas enviaron a sus hermanos en Honduras.
Nos informan que cuando el general barberena preguntaba a cierto sujeto de esta ciudad, inquieriendo sobre tales armas, el interrogado contestaba abriéndose las mangas de las casaca: "por aquí no han pasado." Y mientras el general Barberena se devanaba los sesos haciendo investigaciones, los revolucionarios hondureños se tomaban Tegucigalpa con los pertrechos de guerra que por aquí se fueron......
Francisco Baca.


El Centroamericano, León, 2 May 1924


8 May 1924.   Horrible asesinato en Cinco Pinos.
Avisan de Somotillo que a las cinco pm. del domingo cuatro del corriente, en el pueblo de Cinco Pinos, de aquella jurisdicción, y en casa de Zenon Izaguirre, se consumó un atroz asesinato en la persona del propio señor Izaguirre, de su señora esposa Petrona Rivera, de su hermano Pablo J. Izaguirre y de un chiquito hija de los primeros. Este asesinato fue por defender al Alcalde, a quien José Antonio Galin, uno de los complices de hecho trato de ultimar, motivo por el cual se introdujeron a casa de las victimas Moisés Ochoa y el mencionado Galin, consumando el atroz crimen que tiene hororizado a aquel vecindario.


El Centroamericano, León, 8 May 1924


15 May 1924.   Como fue tomado el picacho.

Las guerras internacionales y civiles que se han desarrollado en Honduras, han sentado este curioso apotegma militar, que la experiencia confirma con irrevocable exactitud: "Quien toma el Picacho, duerme en el Palacio."
Al NE., más bien casi al E. de Tegucigalpa, se yergue a gran altura, imponente, abrupto, amenzador, de un aspecto salvajemente bello, el histórico espolon de Picacho, a cuyo pie, 'bella, indolente, garrida," se recuesta la pequeña y preciosa capital hondureña. . . .
El jefe revolucionario que ocupó el Picacho fue el General Martínez Fúnez al mando de 600 hombres. El 27, a las seis de la mañana se presentó frente a las posiciones del Picacho, pero sin atacarlas. El jefe del día de la fortaleza, Mayor José Esteban Armijo dió cuenta con la novedad al jefe del campamento General Román Díaz, y éste al Consejo de Ministros, Martínez Fúnez se limitó a observar y vigilar haciendo disparos graneados, y ordenó cortar el agua a los defensores. A las dos de la tarde del mismo día 27, unos pocos númerosos salieron de la fortaleza a atacar a las tropas de Martínez Fúnez, y habiendo sido reforzados, tuvieron al fin que reconcentrarse ante la fuerza numérica de los revolucionarios, reconcentración que pudieron efectuar bajo la protección de la artillería manejada por el Teniente Raúl Castro, hijo del General y Dr. Ignacio Castro. . . .
El señor Mayor Armijo nos manifestó en nombre de sus compañeros la vergüensa que septran al venir a Nicaragua y saber los horrores que las tropas de Tosta cometieron en sus correligionarios nicaragüenses en la Costa Norte; siendo responsables de estos hechos el propio Tosta y las fuerzas de su mando.
En esta ciudad está el Sr. Mayor Armijo con cinco compañeros más, y en las Segovias los generales Moreno y Díaz con muchos de sus infortunados compañeros.
Por nuestra parte, creemos interpretar el sentimiento nacional manifestando a los emigrados liberales hondureños que en Nicaragua deben sentirse á cubierto de toda mala voluntad, pues el espíritu hospitalario de esta tierra en nada pueden amenguarlo los brutales atentados de lesa humanidad cometidos por una horda de bandidos, que nada tiene de común con los hermanos hondureños que ahora llegan a nuestras puertas en demanda de amparo y de trabajo.


El Centroamericano, León, 15 May 1924


21 May 1924.   Amagos revolucionarios en la frontera norte.
El Jefe Político de Nueva Segovia comunica con fecha 19 del corriente, que de Somoto le avisa el Agente de Policía haber habido un encuentro armado entre fuerzas del Gobierno de Tosta y los emigrados que han estado en el Oyote, corriéndose los últimos.


El Centroamericano, León, 21 May 1924


1 June 1924.   Honduras al día.
Tegucigalpa, 30 de mayo, Á "El Centroamericano," León
Grupos de texiguas, al mando de Cnel. José de la Paz Cáceres, que huyeron cuando revolución tomó esta ciudad, vinieron & entregar sus armas y se le ha dado garantías. . .
El Gbno. nicaragüense ha ordenado la reconcentración de jefes y oficiales hondureños adversos al Gobierno de Honduras que estaban en Somoto. Los que han abandonado hostilidad armada han regresado ya al país. . . .
Llegaron del Ocotal el Dr. Miguel Sánchez y don Calixto Carías: éste fué amputado de un brazo por las heridas sufridas en el combate de El Pedregalito.


El Centroamericano, León, 1 June 1924


3 August 1924.   Honduran Revolt Plot Reported.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Aug. 2.—It is reported from the Nicaraguan frontier that the Honduran general, Julio Peralta of revolutionary fame, is recruiting to foment a new revolution in Honduras.


NYT, 3 August 1924


5 August 1924.   Captures Honduran Town.  Fonseca, Rebel, Is Operating Near Nicaraguan Frontier.

WASHINGTON, Aug. 4.—Advices regarding a new revolution in Honduras were received at the State Department today, Franklin E. Morales, American Minister, reporting that General Fonseca was operating near the Nicaraguan frontier, and that he captured San Marcos in the State of Choluteca on July 31. A three-cornered revolt in Honduras was recently ended through the mediation of the United States.
The dispatch said that General Fonseca is now proceeding with his forces, which are not believed to be large, toward Choluteca.
General Demas Alvarado and his forces were operating near the Nicaraguan frontier, and Mr. Morales said he has been informed that these movements have no connection with the political situation in Nicaragua, where preparations are being made for Presidential election, and that Fonseca and Alvarado are in accord with General Ferrera, who took a prominent part in the recent revolution. General Julio Peralta, State Department dispatches said, has been permitted to leave Nicaragua, and is now with Fonseca.
The whole situation, officials of the State Department said, is rather obscure, as the meagre reports received give no general view of the whole affair. Little is known of General Fonseca, reported as heading the new revolution, except that previous to the last revolution he had been imprisoned and was released by the late President Gutierrez.


NYT, 5 August 1924


8 August 1924.   Two Americans Slain in Honduras Revolt; War Minister Flees, Cabinet Reorganized.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, Aug. 7 (Associated Press).—Two Americans are reported to have been killed in San Marcos de Colon, Honduras, when General Peralta, the revolutionary leader, attacked the village. Government forces have been sent from here to guard the frontier.
It is also reported that the American Marines in Honduras have been sent to the border to repel the revolutionists.


NYT, 8 August 1924


10 September 1924.   March On Tegucigalpa.  Honduran Rebels Prepare to Attack Government Forces.
SAN JUAN DEL SUR, Nicaragua, Sept. 9 (Associated Press).—General Gregorio Ferrera, leader of the Honduran revolutionary forces, is marching on Tegucigalpa, where the Government is preparing to hold the city against attack.
A message from Tegucigalpa on Saturday declared that hostilities between the Government forces and the rebels had ceased. The United States and the Central American Governments had intervened for the restoration of peace in Honduras by invoking the peace treaty signed at Amapala and negotiations were in progress.


NYT, 10 September 1924


9 October 1924.   Rebel Leader Wounded. Honduras Government Forces Claim Victories Over Ferrera.
TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras, Oct. 8.—General Gregorio Ferrera, the rebel leader, was gravely wounded in the battle with the Government forces on the heights of Comayagua, according to an announcement made today. He was dragged out of the fighting line by Indians. The Government forces were in personal command of Provisional President Tosta. They routed the rebels from the heights.
The rebels are declared to have lost 230 men killed in the fighting at San Isidro, where they were also defeated by Government forces. The defeated rebels fled across the Guatemalan border and fired upon Honduran Government forces guarding the frontier, killing several of them. It is asserted that the Honduran troops did not reply to the fire of the rebels, because of the fact they were on Guatemalan soil.


NYT, 9 October 1924


15 April 1925.   New Revolt in Honduras.  General Ferrera Raises 300 Men--Martial Law Ordered.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, April 14.—Reports have been received here from Honduras that General Gregorio Ferrera, with 300 followers, has started a revolutionary movement and that the Government has declared martial law.


NYT, 15 April 1925


17 April 1925.   Nicaragua Acts to Quell Banditry.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, April 16 (Associated Press).—Nicaraguan authorities are cooperating with those of Honduras in an active campaign to rid the frontier of revolutionists, bandits and assassins, it was announced today. A new revolutionary movement began recently and yesterday Nicaraguan officials detained revolutionists attempting to cross from this country into Honduras.


NYT, 17 April 1925


21 April 1925.   No Title.  [Honduran revolutionists march toward Comayagua]
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, April 20 (Associated Press).—Honduran revolutionists are reported to have captured Ocotepec, Honduras, a village fifty miles from San Salvador, and are marching toward Comayagua, which is thirty-seven miles northwest of Tegucigalpa, the capital, where the situation is declared critical.


NYT, 21 April 1925


21 April 1925.   Navy Lands 165 Men at Ceiba, Honduras, To Protect Americans as Revolt Spreads.
WASHINGTON, April 20.—A detachment of 165 officers and men from the United States cruiser Denver landed today at Ceiba, Honduras, to protect foreign lives and property. . . .
The revolutionary movement in Honduras, reported to be headed again by General Gregorio Ferrera, defeated candidate for the Presidency of that country and leader of several revolutionary juntas in the past, already has been marked by fighting in the vicinity of Ceiba and disorders along the Salvadoran border. . . .
The situation in which the Tegucigalpa authorities find themselves at present is said to verge on the critical. They have been in office less than three months and despite progress made in stabilizing government and restoring peace, broken for the past several years by domestic violence and civil war, it is felt here that the Government is still unprepared for another armed struggle with revolutionists.


NYT, 21 April 1925


22 April 1925.   Honduras Uprising Hits Two Sections.  North Coast and Guatemalan Frontier Involved--Expect Government to Put Down Disorders.
Special to the New York Times.
WASHINGTON, April 21.—The present disturbances in Honduras, as a result of which 165 marines from the United States warship Denver were landed yesterday at La Ceiba for the protection of American lives and property, is apparently more in the nature of an insurrection than a revolution, it was explained at the State Department today. . . .
Since early in March the Honduran military commandants along the Guatemalan frontier have reported almost daily movements of small armed bands in the departments along the frontier. There were also certain movements along the Nicaraguan frontier early this month. The Nicaraguan forces cooperated with the Honduras in pursuit of the raiders.
It is reported that the movements along the Guatemalan frontier have been fomented by Hondurans opposed to their present Government. There are two parties in Honduras, one called the Reds and the other the Blues. The Reds are anti-Government.


NYT, 22 April 1925


23 April 1925.   Navy Unit Quits Honduras.  Cruiser Denver Remains Off Shore After Withdrawing Landing Party.
WASHINGTON, April 22.—The landing detachment of 165 officers and men from the light cruiser Denver was withdrawn yesterday from Ceiba, Honduras, following the arrival of Honduran Government troops to reinforce the units at the port. . . .


NYT, 23 April 1925


25 June 1925.   New Army In Honduras.  But it is Unknown Which Side War Minister's Force Favors.
MANAGUA, June 24 (AP).—Reports from Honduras say that General Vicente Tosta, Minister of War and Marine of Honduras, has assembled an army at Intibuca, but that it is not known whether he intends attacking or aiding the revolutionists in his country.
Nicaragua has declared martial law in her provinces which border Honduras because of the revolutionary movements in the latter country. . . .
Intibuca is a town of 20,000 population in the southern part of Honduras, eighty miles from Tegucigalpa, the capital.
Two distinct anti-Government movements have been under way in Honduras, since April, one in the north and the other in the south. . . .


NYT, 25 June 1925


30 June 1925.   Honduran Rebels Routed.  Government Wins Battle Near Intibuca--Nicaragua Guards Frontier.
MANAGUA, Nicaragua, June 29 (AP).—Dispatches from Honduras today said Government forces have repulsed Honduran rebels near Intibuca, a town in the southern part of Honduras eighty miles from Tegucigalpa, the capital.
Nicaragua is sending additional troops to the frontier. . . .


NYT, 30 June 1925


12 August 1925.   Honduran Army Reduced.  Minister of War Reports Rebels Dispersed--Commerce Gains.
TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras, Aug. 11 (AP).—Peace having been completely restored in Honduras, according to official reports, it is stated that the army has been reduced to a minimum.
General Vicente Tosta, Minister of War and Marine, has returned to Tegucigalpa after a campaign against insurgents in Western Honduras in which, it is said, he cleared that section of trouble makers.
Government reports say the economic situation is improving and trade returns show that commerce is above normal.


NYT, 12 August 1925



One year passes . . .


20 August 1926.   Revolutionary movements in Leon, Chinandega, Sierras around Managua. 
From Green, Managua
August 20, 1926
Rail and wire communication with the west are still cut and the government is without information except from aeroplane observer sent from Managua who reports that only Chichigalpa and other small villages between Chinandega and Leon are held by insurrectionists. Part of a military train was blown up two days ago Granada and Managua. Small bands are reported active in the sierras around Managua. The government evidently takes these uprisings seriously and is mobilizing on an unprecedented scale, drafting all available men and commandeering all means of transportation, food prices rising. . . .
It is supposed liberals who have been disappearing recently in large numbers from cities expect arms, aid and leaders from the outside at some point on the Pacific coast . . .


Green, Managua, to Sec State, 20 August 1926, USDS 817.00/3721


21 August 1926.   Revolutionary Movements Continue.
From Green, Managua
August 21, 1926
Chamorro states railroad communication with Corinto will be reopened today and claims complete victory from the ( * ) in minor engagements day before yesterday with revolutionary forces between San Marcos and Jinotepi also Tamarindo; Chichigalpa recaptured. Apparently movement consists of sporadic raids by bands principally in department of Carazo, Leon, Chinandega to harass government and as preliminary to general uprisings when arms and leaders arrive from outside. To meet this Chamorro is moving large drafted forces the cost of which cannot be met by revenue or available funds. Diaz, others and my personal observation indicate Chamorro is finding difficulty in organizing troops. . . .


Green, Managua, to Sec State, 21 August, USDS 817.00/3728


24 August 1925.   Honduras Protests to Nicaragua.
TEGUCIGALPA, Honduras, Aug. 23 (AP).—A new boundary dispute has arisen between Honduras and Nicaragua. The Honduran Government points out that Nicaragua is occupying the town of Cifuentes, in the territory given to Honduras by the King of Spain's award. It is declared that in the compact of 1920 it was agreed to maintain the status quo of the territory pending decision by the American Secretary of State, and that no Honduran troops have crossed the border.


NYT, 24 August 1925


25 August 1926.   First outbreak of revolution in West.
Dennis, Managua, to Sec State
August 25, 1926
. . . The first outbreak of the revolution occurred on Tuesday, August 17th, when the small villages of Chichigalpa, Quezalguaque and Posoltega, situated along the National Railway between Leon and Chinandega, fell into the hands of Liberal raiders. The Chamorro guards in these villages were few in number and quickly driven off by the Liberals.
This move by the Liberals at once resulted in the cutting of telegraphic and telephonic communication between Managua and points to the west and a complete suspension of train service. The following day parts of the railway track were taken up in the zone of the disturbances around Leon and an attempt was made to dynamite a troop train proceeding from Granada to Managua, which resulted, however, in only the partial destruction of the locomotive.
There was no attack on Leon, a city of some 60,000 inhabitants, approximately nine-tenths of whom are said to be Liberals, nor on the city of Chinandega where the Liberals also have a large majority. As the revolutionists lacked arms, they doubtless were afraid to try conclusions with the well armed and equipped Government forces of these two cities, and as the Departments of Leon and Chinandega are overwhelmingly Liberal with a potential Liberal man power immediately available of well over twenty thousand, it is easily understood that the Government troops quartered in these cities did not rush into any extensive operations against the insurrectionists on the first outbreak but awaited the mobilization of forces by General Chamorro at Managua and confined themselves to their posts. During this delay from August 17th to 22nd the regular train service between Managua and the west was suspended.
An incident of the disorders around Chichigalpa was the burning of a distillery and its stores, resulting in the destruction of over a million liters of spirits.
Immediately following the outbreak at Chichigalpa there was a general rendezvous of the revolutionists to a point on the Pacific Coast known as Tamarindo where on August 20th, according to the report of Major General Alfonso Estrada, commander of the army of General Chamorro, in a three hours engagement the Government troops routed some 900 Liberals inflicting losses of fifteen killed and eight wounded. The Liberal leaders were General Jose Maria Zelaya, who was wounded, Augusto Caldera, Manuel Montoya, Francisco Martinez, Jose Maria Miranda, Andres Largaespada. Presumably the Liberal forces which were largely unarmed had a rendezvous at Tamarindo to await the landing of arms from a vessel which they expected.
About the same time there were minor raids by wandering bands on or near the towns of San Marcos and Jinotepe. These attacks were made by night and had no serious results other than desultory exchanges of rifle fire between the raiders and the Government garrisons. . . .
Mr. Carter informed me that since he had learned that the Government had had certain prisoners in the penitentiary tortured in the past two or three days for the purpose of extracting testimony from them, he had given orders to his men never to employ such inhuman methods.
I was informed yesterday that a reputable Liberal attorney and Magistrate of the Court of Appeal of Leon, Doctor P. Sotomayor, while staying in the hotel at Corinto, was arrested by Major Clay, an American officer of the Guard, and sent up to Managua for examination at the penitentiary where he has been suspended by the thumbs and otherwise tortured in order to obtain testimony from him as to revolutionary plans.
Such brutal methods are traditional in Nicaragua and, I understand, ordered by General Chamorro. . . . whose regime, I can testify from observation, is generally characterized by abuses which in any country having an American or European level of civilization, would be considered outrageous . . .


Dennis, Managua, to Sec State, August 25, 1926, USDS 817.00/3769


26 August 1926.   General Ferrera in Honduras.
From Caffery, San Salvador
August 26, 1926
. . . Señor don Rafael B. Colindres [Honduran Minister in San Salvador] said that General Ferrera is still in the mountains in Honduras, near the Salvadorean border, but that the Honduranean Government no longer feared "el cacique de las montañas," as he called him, for Ferrera had often in the past been able to collect as many as 2,000 Indians around him, but now had a following of less than 200 men; . . .


Jefferson Caffery, San Salavdor, to Sec State, 26 August 1926, USDS 817.00/3796


28 August 1926.   Alcalde asesinado en Somoto.
Antier fue asesinado el Alcalde de Somoto, Pablo Ramírez, por una columna de rebeldes que pasaron por aquella ciudad.


La Noticia (Managua), 28 August 1926


31 August 1926.   Combate en El Ocotal.
Hubo un combate cerca de El Ocotal. El Comandante de Armas de Estelí informó al Ministro de la Guerra la siguiente:—Las tropas al mando del coronel Emilio Zúniga Durán que marchaban hacía El Ocotal, al pasar por el llano de Santa Rita, tuvieron un encuentro con los revolucionarios que andan por esos lugares.


La Noticia (Managua), 31 August 1926


1 September 1926.   Rebels defeated in Coseguina.
From Green, Managua
September 1, 1926
Chamorro reports this morning complete victory yesterday over revolutionists around Cose Guina [Coseguina, Cosegüina] on Bay of Fonseca. Sixty government troops and forty revolutionists killed; over one hundred wounded. . . .


Green to Sec State, 1 Sept. 1926, USDS 817.00/3745


2 September 1926.   Nicaraguan Liberals organizing in La Union.
From Gray, San Salvador
September 2, 1926
Salvadoran authorities inform me that the much talked of EL TROPICAL has put into La Union owing to lack of fuel that she carries some 3,000 rifles, 50 machine guns and corresponding supplies of ammunition; that General Irias [Camilo Lopez Irias] and other prominent Nicaraguan liberals are on board . . . in the meantime the boat is being held at La Union. EL TROPICAL was flying the flag of Mexico and had sailed from Santa Cruz Mexico.
Minister of Foreign Affairs tells me also that there are now 200 or more Nicaraguan liberal emigrados at La Union whom the Salvadoran Government will permit freely to leave the country on ordinary passenger boats bound anywhere but will not permit them to leave as they desire in their own boats in expeditionary form bound for Nicaragua. Repeated to Managua. CAFFERY


Gray, San Salvador, to Sec State, 2 Sept. 1926, USDS 817.00/3747


4 September 1926.   Political Situation at Corinto.

Corinto, Nicaragua
September 4, 1926
. . . on Tuesday, August 17, 1926, all communication, both by rail and wire, with the mainland has been broken by an uprising and burning of property reported to have been in the vicinities of Chichigalpa, Posoltega and San Antonio. While these disorders could hardly be called armed uprisings yet a number of persons were reported to have been killed, and about thirty persons from the Nicaraguan Sugar Estates at San Antonio sought refuge at Corinto . . .
. . . about August 24, 1926, there was considerable military activity at this port occasioned by the report that an unknown vessel was attempting to land arms and men at Corinto. In fact, a small boat with three men put off from the visiting vessel at night to inform themselves as to which force was in power at Corinto, the de facto government or the so-called revolutionaries. These men, two of whom were Nicaraguan and one Mexican, were captured by the forces at Corinto and after having been severely examined were sent to Managua for detention.
From information obtained from these captives, it was learned that a considerable quantity of munitions had already been landed in Nicaragua on the bay of Fonseca and that an attack was expected to be made upon the Chamorro forces from that direction. . . .
From all available reports, it was evident that the next development was the concentration of General Chamorro's forces in the vicinity of the Bay of Fonseca; many men were impressed into military service and troop trains were busy transporting them to Chinandega from whence they were advanced toward the peninsula of Coseguina on Fonseca Bay. Aeroplanes made daily reconnaissance and it was stated that nearly 3,000 men had been concentrated in that vicinity. . . .
. . . there appeared to be no disorders at that time in the interior towns although reliable information indicated that all business was at a standstill; offices and shops being closed to prevent confiscation of merchandise by the military forces and prominent members of the liberal party were in hiding to avoid levies and requisitions of supplies. It was also alleged by persons who were believed to be disinterested in the political affairs of the country that young men were disappearing daily from the towns, apparently joining the dissidents in the field. These evidences of unrest were widespread and while there were no actual disorders in this district, there appeared to be an atmosphere of tension and expectancy. . . .
On September 1, 1926, Mr. Lawrence Dennis, Chargé d'Affaires at Managua, requested this office to transmit to Captain Bogart of the U.S.S. TULSA the information that an extensive action had taken place between the de facto government forces and the so-called revolutionary forces in the vicinity of Fonseca Bay; that one-hundred persons had been killed and that one-hundred persons were there wounded and without medical attention or means of being transported elsewhere for attention . . .
Upon his return to Corinto, early the morning of September 3, 1926, Commander Bogart stated that he found some of the forces at Potosi on the eastern side of the Coseguina peninsula. There were a few wounded men at this point but after sending the ship's doctor to a camp, some four miles inland, he learned that there were four or five serious cases of wounded men in charge of two native doctors. . . .
While at Potosi, the Commander learned that there was continuous skirmishing on a small scale and that wounded men were constantly putting in their appearance. The day before his arrival, a launch containing armed men reached Potosi and was captured, its crew of forty persons being killed, wounded or captured. It seems these launches put out from the nearby coast of Honduras and Salvador and when approaching the Nicaraguan shore are signaled to come ahead. When within easy range, they are then subjected to machine-gun and rifle fire. Landings could doubtless be made safely at various other places on the bay where there are no protecting forces. . . .
There is also transmitted herewith copies of three documents which Commander Bogart was good enough to furnish this office. They are copies of documents found on the bodies of persons killed in the action with took place near Potosi on August 31, 1926, and represent fragmentary correspondence of the Nicaraguan Revolutionary junta in Mexico City.
It has been stated that in the action in Coseguina one-hundred persons were killed, one-hundred wounded and three-hundred so-called revolutionaries captured. The majority of the killed and wounded are said to be members of the de facto forces which are estimated to total somewhere between 2,000 and 3,000 persons. It is stated that none of the defeated forces escaped. The former were equipped with eight machine-guns and some cavalry while the latter are said to have had five machine-guns, which were captured, together with a stand of 600 rifles and supplies of grade three ammunition, all American make. . . .


Corinto, Nicaragua, 4 September 1926, USDS 817.00/3868

Ancillary Documents.

Copies of Documents Taken from the Bodies of Dead Revolutionists by Chamorro's Forces after the Battle of Cosegüina, 31 August 1926.

Junta Revolucionaria Nicaragüense
Sección de México, D.F.
México D. F., . . . . de . . . . 192 . . .
La Junta Revolucionaria Nicaragüense, expone ante el ciudadano Presidente de la República Mexicana, General Plutarco Elías Calles, el siguiente programa de acción política y militar:
El Comité se propone derribar en Nicaragua el régimen del traidor Emiliano Chamorro.
El Comité reconoce como President Constitutional de Nicaragua al doctor Juan Bautista Sacasa.
El Comité proclama la soberanía del pueblo nicaragüense. Por consiguiente quiere romper, con el apoyo indispensable de México, los lazos de servidumbre que tienen a Nicaragua atada al capricho de los Estados Unidos.
Por razones obvias, el Comité quiere poner bajo los viriles y fraternales auspicios de México, el porvenir de la Patria, obteniendo primero la libertad de Nicaragua y trabajando después intensamente por la unión centroamericana, todo esto bajo el decidido patroncinio de México.
Barridos de la escena política de Centro-América los serviles incondicionales de los Estados Unidos, restadas las pretensiones de expansión y predominio de ese país imperialista y lograda la unión centroamericana, se concertaría una verdadera y profunda alianza entre México y la nueva nacionalidad del itsmo.
Para conseguir estos elevados fines políticos y patrioticos, es necesario:
Que México apoye decididamente al Comité, suministrado todos los elementos necesarios para hacer, sin perdida de tiempo, la Revolución de Nicaragua.
En resumen:
En el terreno político necesitamos: Que la voz de la raza hable épicamente por la boca de México.
Y en el terreno militar: Que México nos apoye con elementos de guerra para sostener en el campo de batalla la siguiente divisa: "Libertad O Muerte."
El Presidente del Comité.
El Jefe del Comité Militar
/s/ S. Seviles.
Junta Revolucionaria Nicaragüense
Sección de México
México, D. F.
. . . . de . . .de . . . 192 . . .
1a. Los jesuitas predominan actualmente en Nicaragua. Los clerigos forman parte de la administración pública. El Arzobispo ha sido Presidente del Senado.
2a. La unión centroamericana es el supremo ideal del pueblo centroamericano. Este hecho constituiría una de las páginas más importantes de la Historia de México y un positivo servicio prestado al progreso de la Humanidad.
3a. Siendo Presidente de la República el traidor Adolfo Díaz, del mismo partido de Chamorro, opino, por medio del "New York American," que la intervención armada de los Estados Unidos en Nicaragua estaba siendo beneficiosa, y que por consiguiente, debía extenderse sobre las demás repúblicas latinoamericanas, inclusive México.
México D. F., 11 de Abril de 1926.
El presidente del Comité,
El Jefe del Comité Militar,
/s/ S. Seviles.
On the back of another document, a letter to the President of Mexico Plutarco Calles soliciting his support, are listed following names, "who are supposed to be the Nicaraguan revolutionary leaders":
Dr. R. Espinosa
Dr. L. Argüello
H. Espinosa
M. Cordero Reyes
J. E. Alvarado
G. Ramírez Broon
C. A. Castro W.
Neri Fernández
M. Barreto H.
R. Membreño P.
Julian A. Vanegas
Salvador Sobalbarro
J. M. Argüello
Samuel Santos


Enclosures, 4 September 1926, USDS 817.00/3868



6 September 1926.   Conditions in the Liberal departments.
From Green, Managua
September 6, 1926
Conditions are especially in the Liberal Departments appalling, military forces are taking cattle, merchandise, which they consume or sell, and money. They are living on the country with terrorism, torture prisoners of war, search houses even those of foreigners in an improper manner. . . .
Government informs me that an important battle took place at Somotillo, Department of Chinandega, yesterday [5 Sept], large numbers of casualties, 32 killed and complete route of Liberals with total loss of arms. I am told this will be last of revolution in the West for the present. . . .


Green, Managua, to Sec State, 6 Sept. 1926, USDS 817.00/3759


9 September 1926.   Batalla en Somotillo.
Revolutionaries in Somotillo and El Sauce. Big battle in Somotillo between revolutionists and government forces. 15 dead. Grals. Samuel Santos, Pedro Vargas, Ernesto Alvarado.


La Noticia (Managua), 9 September 1926


2 October 1926.   Government forces victorious near Corinto.
Green, Managua
October 2, 1926
Six killed and many wounded in minor engagement yesterday near La Reforma north of Corinto. Complete government victory claimed. It is to be feared that other similar expeditions will be undertaken if as Chamorro alleges in this case Salvadorean Government allows EL TROPICAL to outfit them clandestinely at La Union. After two years experience with Central American governments in similar circumstances and seeing such expeditions permitted by Guatemala and Salvador against Honduras notwithstanding formal promises of presidents of the first named countries as records show, I suggest it will be desirable to insist on the elimination of EL TROPICAL menace to the peace in a conclusive manner. Small revolutionary raids made in this way have little chance of overthrowing Chamorro and this could go on as in Honduras under Lopez Gutierrez for a year with only disastrous consequences all concerned. . . .


Green, Managua, to Sec State, 2 Oct. 1926, USDS 817.00/3865


5 October 1926.   Rebeldes en Macuelizo. 
From Salvador Paguaga M., Comandante de Armas, Ocotal: Macuelizo attacked by revolutionists.


La Noticia (Managua), 5 October 1926


20 October 1926.   El último combate de Somoto.
Somoto, via Yalaguina, 12 m. del 18 de Octubre.
Comandante General:
Tengo el gusto de participar a usted que el día de ayer nos ocupamos de explorar todo el campo donde fue el combate, encontrando tres muertos más, 26 heridos de los revoltosos, recogiendo varios equipos y pertrechos de guerra, veinticuatro bombas de mano, 2 rifles mexicanos y 5 bestias aperadas.
A las 11 menos un cuarto de la mañana de hoy llegóme espionaje de caserío Santa Isabel y Santa Rosa de esta jurisdicción, informándome que por la vía 'Mal Paso' encontrábase Simeón Jirón alias Pichingo y Carlos Salgado, de este pueblo con un grupo como de 150 hombres armados con rifles y pistolas que venían a atacar esta plaza; en vista de tal noticia organicé setenta hombres al mando mío y del coronel Luis Aguirre quien organizó una caballería de treinta soldados comandados por el mayor Luis Peña; salí y a dos kilómetros de ésta encontréme con el enemigo; rompí los fuegos haciendo salir al coronel Aguirre y Jefe de la caballería, así: Sobre el camino de Oruse al Cnel. Aguirre juntamente con el Jefe de la caballería y tomando yo las serranías del costado norte con resto del ejército y después de nutrido combate de dos horas y media derrotamos al enemigo huyendo hacia la frontera de Honduras. Recorrimos los campos, encontré 26 muertos, cinco heridos y pertrechos de guerra, 150 tiros Matinger, tres bestias, various documentos importantes y 8 libras de pólvora y dinamita. El coronel Ubau que comandaba 30 hombres lo dejé en esta plaza guardándome la retaguardia, encontréle en actitud enérgica, tal como se lo ordené. No omito manifestar a usted el arrojo y bizarría en estos combates; el coronel Luis Aguirre ha sabido enaltecer sus laureles de militar. Subalterno, Jefe Expedicionario, E. Z. Durón.


La Noticia (Managua), 20 October 1926


26 October 1926.  Se libró un combate cerca de la frontera. Somoto, amenzado por los revolucionarios.
Somoto, 24 — Dirección General. Trascríbole: Comandante de Armas — Ocotal.
A las 6 am. ingresó el coronel A. Vivas a esta plaza de regreso de la persecución a los facciosos derrotados el 21. Los encontró en el lugar llamado 'Terreno Blanco' como a una legua del pueblo de San Francisco de Cuajiniquilapa; éstos estaban en número de 180 hombres, comandados por los jefes Ciriaco Aguilera, Carlos Salgado y Efraím Cordón. El ataque comenzó a las dos y media pm. habiendo sido desalojados de su primera posición, haciendo resistencia tenáz en su campamento general, el cual estaba bien fortificado, los siguió y éstos se parapataron de nuevo en unas lomas como a a tres mil varas de donde fueron desalojados como a las seis pm., los que quedaron totalmente desbandados. Al explorar el campo. encontró 5 muertos, seis rifles, tres mausser, uno calibre 38, dos infumes, sesenta cartuchos mausser y veinte infumes, nueve bestias, unas aperadas. De nuestra parte tenemos que lamentar la muerte de los soldados Pedro Flores y Antonio Morales, hondureños, heridos, Esteban Maradiaga, de San Lucas; también pudo quitarles al individuo Antonio Martínez, vecino del caserío 'El Jiñocuago', correligionario nuestro que desde hacía tres días lo tenían reo. Jefes, oficiales y soldados se comportaron muy a la altura de su deber, no obstante de la escabrosidad de aquellos lugares y la fuerte lluvia. En su regreso vía Río Negro, Cusmapa, Sábanas, Oruce y San Lucas no encontré ningun grupo.
Jefe Expedicionario, L. AGUIRRE
Telegrafísta Principal, M. J. MARTINEZ

Somoto, amenazado por los revolucionarios
Estelí, 24 — Dirección General. — Ayer dije al telegrafísta principal de Somoto gestionara en comisión armada sobre la frontera de San Marcos con el guarda para restablecer la comunicación y contestó lo siguiente:
'Somoto, 23 — Inspector López — Estelí — Entendido. Por el momento sólo tenemos 25 hombres en esta plaza y amenaza el enemigo por dos lados.
Línea con la frontera está hecha pedazos. Traje alambre del Ocotal, pero no hay un sólo fierro para repararla. Se necesita además una pila seca. Si en caso nos atacan, informaré. M J. MARTINEZ
Mientras nuestras fuerzas no destruyan los grupos revoltosos de aquellos lugares, no podremos tener comunicación, pues el empeño mayor del enemigo consiste en mantenernos sin comunicación. Vea que llenen los pedidos de materiales que introduje a la Dirección General. Yo, listo para salir donde sea necesario. —, S. LOPEZ R.


La Noticia (Managua), 16 October 1926


2 November 1926.   Situation in Nicaragua and Honduras. 
Telegram Sent
Department of State, Washington
November 2, 1926
Department confidentially advised from Managua that Sacasa is ready to leave Guatemala for Bragmans Bluff, Nicaragua on November 5, and that the Nicaraguan revolutionists have an agreement with the President of Honduras to pass through Honduran territory; also that the Mexican Government and the Liberals have an understanding with President of Honduras whereby he will form a Government of the national party with Liberals and will oust Conservative leaders, such as Martinez Funes, Carias, and Abraham Williams. General Alvarado has ready five hundred Honduraneans in the Gulf of Fonseca. For the operations on the Pacific side the Lbierals received yesterday three thousand five hundred rifles and five machine guns somewhere on the Gulf of Fonseca landed by EL TROPICAL before leaving La Union. Membreno, Chief of Police of Amapala, is working for the revolutionists in understanding with President of Honduras. ...


Dept State to US Legation, Tegucigalpa, 2 Nov. 1926, USDS 817.00/3938


3 November 1926.   Revolucionarios en Somotillo.
Revolutionary bands active near Somotillo.


La Noticia (Managua), 3 Nov. 1926


4 November 1926.   Sangriento combate en El Ocotal.  Quedaron 25 muertos en el campo de batalla.

Note:  This was the first battle waged by Sandino's Liberal army in Las Segovias — the attack on the Conservative garrison at El Jícaro on 2 November 1926.  Contrary to this official report by Salvador Paguaga, Comandante de Armas of Nueva Segovia, in fact Sandino's small Liberal band defeated the garrison . Several items here are noteworthy:  that Sandino is said to be a colonel from Chontales; that his 250 troops were reportedly armed with rifles, pistols, and dynamite bombs with nails; that his troops reportedly retreated toward San Albino and Murra; that Alfredo Williams, son of Jorge Williams, was among his troops; and that the flags borne by his troops were of three colors and considered "Mexican".

Sangriento combate en El Ocotal. Quedaron 25 muertos en el campo de batalla.
(Informe oficial)
Ocotal a las 10 am del 3.—Comandante General—Managua—Transcríbole—'El Jícaro 3- Comandante de Armas, Ocotal. Tengo la honra de informar a Ud. que ayer a las tres pm.ataqué al enemigo que se encontraba acampado en esta plaza en número de 250 hombres armados de rifles, pistolas y dinamita. A las seis pm. lo derroté huyendo en precipitada fuga hacia los minerales de San Albino y Murra, dejando en el campo 25 muertos, 35 bestias aperadas, 30 bombas de dinamita preparadas con clavos. El jefe que encabezada los revoltosos es el coronel Sandino, originario de Chontales. De los muertos del enemigo sólo puedimos conocer al joven Alfredo Williams, hijo de don Jorge Williams, americano. Mi segundo jefe, coronel Aguirre y los demás jefes y oficiales se portaron con heroísmo vivando entusiasmados a nuestro jefe general Chamorro.
De nuestra parte sólo en general Durón resultó con una leve lesión en la mano izquierda. Después informaré cuando haya terminado de inspeccionar todos los campos de operaciones porque el combate fue en distintos lugares.
Los pabellones que tenían los revoltosos eran mexicanos, tricolor, los cuales tengo en mi poder, presenciando estos actos el americano, Mr. Thomas Bracken, quien firma la terminación.—Z. Durón, segundo Jefe, L. Aguirre y T. Bracken' —Comandante de Armas. SALVADOR PAGUAGA M.


La Noticia (Managua), 4 Nov. 1926


19 November 1926.   American Forces Ready To Compel Nicaraguan Peace.  Kellogg Seeks First to Induce Liberals to Accept the Diaz Government. His Words Stir Mexicans. Responsibility for Gun-Running Is Disavowed and Similar American Feats Are Cited. Warning Is Resented. Mexico, it is Contended, Has as Much Right as United States to Extend Influence.
Transcription in progress . . .


NYT, 19 Nov. 1926


28 November 1926.   Combates en Telpaneca, Somoto.
Ocotal 26 de noviembre.—Hoy a las 8 am. fueron alcanzados los revoltosos en Telpaneca por M. J. Espinoza, Sante Lices y coronel Luis Aguirre, que desde Yalaguina los iban perseguiendo desde ayer. Después de una hora de combate declaráronse en completa derrota, huyendo desbandados unos río arriba y otros dejaron en el campo un muerto y se les hizo un avanzado, tomándole también una alforja con parque, y al jefe Benito Lopez le mataron la mula al tiempo de pasar el río y tuvo que correr a pie, dejando en poder de los nuestros todo su equipaje. . . .—Comandante de Armas SALVADOR PAGUAGA M.
Somoto 26 de noviembre.—Today we fell on the enemy at Telpaneca, defeating them after one hour combat.—JOSÉ MARÍA MAYORGA A.


La Noticia (Managua), 28 Nov. 1926


1 December 1926.   Revolucionarios en Somotillo.
Somotillo taken by revolutionarists, according to the government.


La Noticia (Managua), 1 Dec. 1926


2 December 1926.   Noticias de Somotillo.
Somotillo retaken by government forces, according to the government.


La Noticia (Managua), 2 Dec. 1926


29 December 1926.   Por qué no hubo elecciones en Pueblo Nuevo.
Deposited in Estelí on 27 December. To Ministro de Gobernación. No elections because:  por estar aquella zona afectada por grupos de revoltosos; por estar desintegrados todos los directorios pues la mayor parte de sus miembros andan huyendo por temer de ser asesinado. . . . —Jefe Político Julio Cuadra.


La Noticia (Managua), 29 Dec. 1926


22 February 1927.   Diaz Now Asks America To Take Virtual Control of Nicaraguan Affairs.  Alliance is Suggested.  Or Supervision Similar to That Exercised in Cuba.  Coolidge Ignores Critics.  Indications Point to His Resolve to Pursue Firm Latin-American Policy.  Marines In Eight Cities.  Dispositions Being Taken to Render Attacks by Liberals on Chief Centres Impossible.
Transcription in progress . . .


NYT, 22 February 1927


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